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    Travel and Tourism Assignment Help

    Travel and Tourism Assignment Help

     LO1 Task 1 1.1 Historical Developments in the Travel and Tourism Sector

    Middle Ages (Medieval Pilgrimage)
    Medieval  England  was  a  society  in which  spatial  mobility  was extremely limited. Serfdom (until its decline in the 14th and 15th centuries) bound  peasants  to  the  land,  and even  free  peasants  had  their  mobility circumscribed  by  law  and custom.  Yet,  the  process  of  taking  part  in a pilgrimage, often  to a saint’s tomb, provided  an acceptable means for peasants to leave the local community for a time (John M. Theilmann, 1987).
    Pilgrims whilst on their journeys came across many stories, and often they gathered these stories and told people along their journey and when they got home. Sometimes they would bring back relics, and sometimes these relics would attract stories all of their own. 
    16th century
    Grand tour undertaken by young nobles.
    This possessed its own, new structures that were clearly defined by corporate status: the original goal was to broaden one's education, mark the end of childhood and acquire and hone social graces; however, over time, leisure and pleasure became increasingly important.
    18th century 
    Aristocrats who wanted to avoid mixing with the parvenu bourgeoisie sought more exclusive destinations and pastimes. This is evident in the fact that they found renewed enthusiasm for bathing holidays and took up residence in luxurious spa towns with newly built casinos.
    19th century (Mass Tourism)
    Educational journeys undertaken by the (upper) middle class were an important stage in the development of tourism. The travels of the educated middle classes imitated those of prominent poets and philosophers.
    People journeyed in coaches, explored the countryside and cities, visited landmarks in order to experience nature, culture and art directly on the spot and deepen one's understanding of them. 
    Brighton boomed when the railway link to London opened in 1841. For the first time, ordinary Londoners could afford a day-trip to the seaside. 
    Organized group holidays offering an all-inclusive price that reduced the travelers’ costs were an innovation of the 1840s. Thomas Cook (1808-1892) , a brilliant entrepreneur from England, is seen as their inventor and thus the pioneer of commercialized mass tourism. His first all-inclusive holiday in 1841 took 571 people from Leicester to Loughborough and supplied both meals and brass music. From 1855, Cook offered guided holidays abroad, for example in 1863 to Switzerland.
    1st third of the 19th century and around 1950
    It prepared the way for a mass tourism recognizable to modern concepts of spending leisure time. The most important undoubtedly include not only the advance of industrialization, demographic changes, urbanization and the revolution in transportation, but also the improvement of social and labor rights, the rise in real income and the resulting changes in consumer demand.
    Railways also created greater mobility. The first sections of track were opened in England in 1825, in France in 1828, in Germany in 1835, in Switzerland in 1844/1847 and in Italy in 1839.
    Victorian Era
    A Seaside break is a Victorian tradition.
    20th century
    The tourist industry became a significant part of the capital's life and economy. The development of modern tourism in Britain began in the 1940s with the growth of air travel, although at first, the opportunity to fly was available only to the rich. By the 1990s, travel had become available to ordinary people in all countries, thanks to new transport infrastructure such as the building of the Eurotunnel and the shrinking price of air travel. Many people could afford to visit London for the day and return home the same evening. 
    a) 1908 Summer Olympics was an international multi-sport event was held in London
    b) 1912 Titanic sinks on her maiden voyage from Southampton to NYC
    c) 1948 Britain hosts the Olympic Games in London, dubbed the Austerity Games
    d) 1951 was a national exhibition and fair that reached millions of visitors throughout the United Kingdom in the summer of 1951
    e) 1966 Britain wins Football World Cup
    f) 1969 The first UK-built Concorde flew from Filton to RAF Fairford on 9 April
    g) 1994 The Channel Tunnel, a 50.45km rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover, opened
    h) 2012 The Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II
    LO1 Task 1 1.2 The Structure of the Travel and Tourism Sector
    The structure of the travel and tourism industry is complex because it is made up of a wide variety of interrelated organizations. These organizations can be divided into:
    a) private
    b) public
    c) voluntary
    Private Sector
    The private sector encompasses all for-profit businesses that are not owned or operated by the government. The private sector is the segment of a national economy owned, controlled and managed by private individuals or enterprises. The private sector has a goal of making money and employs more workers than the public sector. A private-sector organization is created by forming a new enterprise or privatizing a public sector organization. (Investopedia)

    1. Public Limited Company – PLC
    A public limited company (PLC) is the legal designation of a limited liability company which has offered shares to the general public and has limited liability. (Investopedia, 2017)
    All companies listed on the London Stock Exchange are, by definition, PLCs. For example,Virgin, Thomas Cook, British Airways, Hilton Hotels, EasyJet.

    2. Private Limited Company – LTD
    A type of company that offers limited liability or legal protection for its shareholders but that places certain restrictions on its ownership. These restrictions are defined in the company's bylaws or regulations and are meant to prevent any hostile takeover attempt.
    The major ownership restrictions are:
    shareholders cannot sell or transfer their shares without offering them first to other shareholders for purchase,
    shareholders cannot offer their shares to the general public over a stock exchange, and
    the number of shareholders cannot exceed a fixed figure (commonly 50).

    3. Partnership
    A partnership is an arrangement in which two or more individuals share the profits and liabilities of a business venture. Various arrangements are possible: all partners might share liabilities and profits equally, or some partners may have limited liability. Not every partner is necessarily involved in the management and day-to-day operations of the venture. In some jurisdictions, partnerships enjoy favorable tax treatment relative to corporations. (Investopedia, 2017)

    4. Limited Liability Partnership – LLP
    A limited liability company (LLC) is a corporate structure whereby the members of the company cannot be held personally liable for the company's debts or liabilities. Limited liability companies are essentially hybrid entities that combine the characteristics of a corporation and a partnership or sole proprietorship. While the limited liability feature is similar to that of a corporation, the availability of flow-through taxation to the members of an LLC is a feature of partnerships. (Investopedia, 2017)

    5. Sole Proprietorship
    A sole proprietorship, also known as a sole trader or a proprietorship, is an unincorporated business with a single owner who pays personal income tax on profits earned from the business. With little government regulation, a sole proprietorship is the simplest business to set up or take apart, making sole proprietorships popular among individual self-contractors, consultants or small business owners. Many sole proprietors do business under their own names because creating a separate business or trade name isn't necessary.

    6. Franchise
    A franchise is a type of license that a party (franchisee) acquires to allow them to have access to a business's (the franchiser) proprietary knowledge, processes and trademarks in order to allow the party to sell a product or provide a service under the business's name. In exchange for gaining the franchise, the franchisee usually pays the franchisor initial start-up and annual licensing fees.
    Public Sector 
    Companies and corporations that are government run are part of what is known as the public sector. The public sector employs workers through the federal, state or local government. Workers are paid through a portion of the government’s tax dollars. (Investopedia)
    Travel and tourism organizations operating in the public sector can be: 
    1.Government-controlled - receives funding from the central government, e.g. VisitBritain
    2.Local government-controlled - most local councils have a department involved with promotion and developing tourism, e.g.  Birmingham City Council, Torbay Council in Devon,  Pembrokeshire County Council and Belfast City  Council; 
    3.  Membership organizations - are funded from public money, but also raise income through membership subscriptions. 
    Voluntary Sector
    Charities and other nonprofit organizations are part of the voluntary sector.
    The structures of the travel and tourism sector within the aforementioned organizations include 
    a) Transportation
    b) Accommodation
    c) Attraction
    d) Travel Agents
    e) Tour Operators
    f) Information and Coordination
    It is due to the improvement of transportation that tourism has expanded. Transportation is the main 
    means to carry tourists to the actual site where tourism services are provided.
    Types of transportation:
    a) Airlines
    b) Coach Operators
    c) Cruise Liners
    d) Railways
    e) Taxis
    f) Car Rental Companies

    London has five major airports (visitlondon.com):
    a) London City
    b) London Gatwick
    c) London Heathrow
    d) London Luton
    e) London Stansted
    Other major UK airports are Birmingham, Manchester and London Luton.
    The following is the 10 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic in 2015 (CAA Statistics):

    The largest airport operator in the UK is Heathrow Aorport Holdings, followed by Manchester Airports Group. Together with British Airways and Virgin Atlantic Airways, they are part of the Aviation Foundation which lobby for the aviation needs of the United Kingdom.
    EasyJet, Britain’s largest carrier, came bottom in a ranking of UK airlines, based on punctuality, quality and the speed of dealing with compensation claims. (Morris, 2016) 
    The top 5 UK airlines:
    a) Virgin Atlantic – 8.2
    b) British Airways – 7.7
    c) FlyBe – 7.6
    d) Jet2.com – 7.2
    e) EasyJet – 6.2
    Coach Operators
    The Guild of British Coach Operators
    The Guild of British Coach Operators represents over 20 of the UK's top coach companies. Membership is only open to coach operators who can demonstrate the highest standards in their operations. All Guild Members offer a range of different types of coaches and seating capacities and all can provide executive coaches with features such as toilets and video/DVD players. Many also offer specialist vehicles including people carriers, super executive coaches for corporate functions or sports teams, double deck coaches, 70-seater school coaches, heritage buses/coaches (ideal for weddings or special events) and even open-top buses. Many Guild Members can also arrange a complete tour package for Groups. (coach-tours.co.uk/guild)
    The main coach operators in the UK today are:
    Megabus, part of Stagecoach, who operate a no-frills service requiring advance booking on the internet
    National Express, the dominant operator in England and Wales
    Scottish Citylink, the dominant operator in Scotland.
    TrawsCymru, 'express' bus service for Wales, run in conjunction with local franchises
    Ulsterbus, the state-owned company which runs coach services in Northern Ireland
    Oxford Bus Company, under the X90 Oxford-London brand (formerly Oxford espress and Oxford Express brands)
    Oxford Tube (part of Stagecoach Oxfordshire)
    Park's of Hamilton, who operate some routes in Scotland
    Caledonian Travel,[48] operating coach tours in Scotland departing from Glasgow and Edinburgh
    Scotland Coachlines, which operates day trips, tours and scheduled services from Aberdeen.
    National Holidays,[49] operating coach holidays departing from Yorkshire, North East, North West and Midlands
    Travelstyle Tours,[50] Coach Tours out of the North West, Midlands, South Yorkshire, Humberside, Suffolk and Essex
    And smaller independent operators: Bakers Dolphin, Berry's Coaches, Thandi Coaches,[51] New Bharat Coaches[52] and others.
    EasyBus, operating from London to the London airports
    RailAir, linking airports to railway stations
    Terravision, linking various airports in the South East to London and other towns and train stations
    London commuter
    Armchair Passenger Transport,[53] owned by ComfortDelGro
    Chalkwell Coaches
    Green Line, owned by Arriva
    National Express, following its acquisition of The Kings Ferry
    New Enterprise Coaches, owned by Arriva
    And smaller independent operators: Reliance Travel,[54] Marshalls,[55] Richmond's,[56] Clarkes of London[57] and others
    Alga and AutokarPolska, to Poland
    Bohemian Lines and Turancar to the Czech Republic and Slovakia
    Ecolines to Latvia
    Eurobus Express, to France, Belgium and other countries
    Eurolines, a franchise operation co-ordinating the international services of National Express, Bus Éireann, and continental operators
    OUIBUS, a Bus by French SNCF, that operates to Lille, Paris, Bruxeles and Amsterdam.
    National Express and Scottish Citylink are mostly franchise operations. Coaches are contracted in from many operating companies.
    In addition there are numerous operators of coach excursions and tours, and coaches for charter. (Wikipedia)

    Cruise Liners
    A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are a part of the experience, as well as the different destinations, i.e., ports of call, along the way. Transportation is not the only purpose of cruising, particularly on cruises that return passengers to their originating port, with the ports of call usually in a specified region of a continent. (Wikipedia)

    Best Cruises for First Time UK Cruisers (cruisecritic.co.uk)
    Best for ex-UK Cruises
    P&O Cruises
    Celebrity Cruises
    Best for Trans-Atlantic
    Best for Mediterranean Fly-Cruises
    MSC Cruises
    Princess Cruises
    Best for Caribbean Fly-Cruises
    Norwegian Cruise Lines
    Best for Traditional Cruises
    Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines
    Voyages of Discovery
    Best for Family Cruises
    Royal Caribbean           
    Best for Luxury Cruises
    Best for River Cruises
    Viking River Cruises
    Best for Cultural Cruises
    Voyages to Antiquity
    Best for Value-Priced Cruises
    Cruise & Maritime Voyages
    Best for Over-50s
    Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks. It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles (rolling stock) are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves.
    The railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world: the world's first locomotive-hauled public railway opened in 1825.
    In 2014, there were 1.65 billion journeys on the National Rail network, making the British network the fifth most used in the world. (Wikipedia)
    The latest Estimates of Station Usage for 2015-16, for all stations in Great Britain, were published by Office of Rail and Road (ORR) on 6 December 2016.
    The estimates of station usage consist of the total numbers of people:
    - Travelling from or to the station (entries and exits); and
    - interchanging at the station (interchanges)
    Additional information includes geographical location, ticket type and other information about the station.
    Taxis& Private Hire Vehicles
    A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice. This differs from other modes of public transport where the pick-up and drop-off locations 
    are determined by the service provider, not by the passenger, although demand responsive transport and share taxis provide a hybrid bus/taxi mode. (Wikipedia)
    Taxis (or ‘hackney carriages’) are available for immediate hire, can be hailed in the street (‘ply for hire’) and accept pre-bookings. Taxis have two types of licences: a vehicle licence (issued to the owner of the taxi) and a driving licence.
    Private Hire Vehicles (PHV; ‘minicabs’) must be prebooked and cannot use taxi ranks. It is illegal for PHV to ply for hire. For PHV there are three type of licences: a vehicle licence, a driving licenceand an operator licence.
    The table above summarizes the 2015 taxi and private hire vehicles (PHV) licensing statistics. Figures for licensed vehicles, PHV operators and drivers are shown for London, England outside London and England. These statistics are collected every two years with the last survey being carried out in 2013. (Department for Transport, 2015)
    Accommodation is one of the largest sectors in the tourism industry.These are establishments that provide a place for the tourist to stay i.e. lodging facilities which are paid for the duration of the stay by the tourist.
    Bed and Breakfast
    Camping Grouds
    Farm Stays
    A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure, adventure and amusement. (Wikipedia)
    List of Tourist Attractions in England (Wikipedia):
    Abbeys and priories
    Amusement park
    Anglo-Saxon sites
    Art museums and galleries
    Heritage railways
    Hill forts
    Historic Houses
    Indoor Arenas
    Market towns
    Monuments and memorials
    National parks
    Nature reserves
    Prehistoric sites
    Roman Sites
    Seaside resorts
    Shopping centres
    Travel Agents
    A travel agency is a private retailer or public service that provides travel and tourism related services to the public on behalf of suppliers such as activities, airlines, car rentals, cruise lines, hotels, railways, travel insurance, and package tours. In addition to dealing with ordinary tourists most travel agencies have a separate department devoted to making travel arrangements for business travelers and some travel agencies specialize in commercial and business travel only. There are also travel agencies that serve as general sales agents for foreign travel companies, allowing them to have offices in countries other than where their headquarters are located. (Wikipedia)
    Tour Operator
    A tour operator typically combines tour and travel components to create a package holiday. They advertise and produce brochures to promote their products, holidays and itineraries.
    Britain’s best tour operatorsof the Telegraph Travel Awards 2015-16 (telegraph.co.uk):
    Best tour operator
    Scott Dunn
    Best escorted tour operator
    Wendy Wu
    Best specialist tour operator
    Wellbeing Escapes
    Vintage Travel
    Inspired Luxury
    Best rail operator
    Rocky Mountaineer
    Great Rail Journeys
    Best ski operator
    Scott Dunn
    VIP Ski
    Le Ski
    Best ferry operator
    Stena Line
    Information and Coordination
    There are subsectors of the tourism industry which provide support services to tourists. These include:
    Tour Guides
    Tourist information centres
    Travel insurance companies
    Retail outlets
    Food, beverage and entertainment outlets
    Travel guide publications
    Industry associations
    Tourism authorities
    Research bodies
    Task forces 
    LO2 Task 2 2.3 The Implications of Political Change on the Travel and Tourism Sector
    Tourism has been closely involved in political action over the years. This is due to the fact that tourism is immersed in the economy. Hence, the government plays a vital role in the tourism sector because it is involved in political decisions regarding the improvement and creation of an adequate environment in developing tourism. The issue of political stability and political relations within and between states is extremely important in determining the image of destinations in tourist-generating regions and the real and perceived safety of tourists (Hall 1996).

    Political change can either increase  or decrease the interest of visitors depending what the change is. If a country is perceived to be high risk and the change results in a feeling of increased stability, then the country’s tourism can recover. But if the country is seen as unstable as a result of the political change, such as in the case of Thailand in 2014, tourism will plummet. 

    As Ankomah and Crompton (1990, p19) suggest, a major consideration in a potential traveler’s decision to visit any foreign destination is that country’s political stability and general internal security conditions. Any evidence of domestic turmoil is likely to result in a decision not to visit that country.

    Thailand’s political crisis has taken its toll on the country’s tourism sector. It has kept tourists away. From civil unrest to terrorism and increasing threats against visitors, Thailand has a struggle on its hands to maintain its reputation as a safe travel destination, writes David Beirman, a Senior Lecturer of Tourism at the University of Technology Sydney.
    Thailand’s tourism industry has suffered; however, arrivals began to rapidly climb after the combined force of the government's recovery marketing campaigns and economic stimulus packages. The government released a number of schemes to boost the tourism industry.Recovery campaigns were set in motion after the 2009 financial crisis which include:the emergence of Phuket as a strong backup destination to Bangkok, the growing role of low-cost airlines, and the rise of new source markets.

    During the 2014 political unrest, Thai Public Broadcasting Service noted that the tourism industry planned to advertise a calendar of New Year’s events around the country and will emphasize tourismopportunities in less-visited provinces, such as Lampang, Ratchaburi, and Loei.The Tourism and Sport Ministry also looked at rebranding Pattayaas a “world sports destination,” according to the National News Bureau of Thailand. 
    Travel destinations are also influenced by government travel advisories due to a country’s political instability. Travel advisories are issued or bans are imposed for political reasons. It is common, for example for governments to prohibit travel to war zones or to territories of hostile nations in which the government has no means of protecting the life and property of its citizens (Edgell 1995, p 108).Western governments issue regular travel advisories for their citizens warning them to stay away from certain destinations.Foreign travel advice by the UK government can be accessed at https://www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice. 
    Political stability is vital to any investment but it is of extreme importance to tourism because of what is being marketed: leisure, serenity, fun and comfort. These can only be successfully sold under stable political condition

    LO3 Task 3 3.1 Factors Affecting Tourism Demand
    Tourism demand is defined as the number of people that plan to buy tourism products supported by sufficient purchasing power and spare time in order to meet tourism needs of people.(Samirkas and Samirkas, 2015)
    Types of tourism demand:
    Effective Demand or Actual Demand
    Suppressed Demand
    No Demand
    Potential Demand
    Deferred or Postponed Demand

    Factors Determining Tourism Demand:
    Environmental factors –(e.g. good climate, beautiful scenery) Climate has been identified as a key driver for tourism and an
    important destination attribute (Hu & Ritchie, 1992). Climate is either the main
    tourism resource, for example in the case of beach destinations (Kozak et al., 2008),
    or it acts as a facilitator that makes tourism activities possible and enjoyable (Gómez
    Martin, 2005). The importance of climatic attributes for tourist destinations isreflected in advertising materials (Gómez Martín, 2005) as well as destination imageconstruction (Pike, 2002). While Barbadoes sells ‘good weather’ with a money-back
    guarantee (Scott & Lemieux, 2009), other destinations have learned to turn potential
    disadvantages into successful niches. Tarifa in Spain has capitalised on its frequent
    and intense wind (unfavourable for beach tourism) to become a mecca forwindsurfing (Gómez Martín, 2005).
    These studies show that besides destination choice,
    climate is also an important factor for the timing of travel (Lohmann and Kaim, 1999;
    Hamilton and Lau, 2005). Tourism’s seasonality is not only driven by climatic conditions at the destination and tourists’ home countries, but also by institutional factors such as
    school holidays (Butler, 2001). Besides climatic conditions at tourist destinations, the climate in tourists’ home
    countries was also found to be very important (Maddison, 2001). Unfavourable
    climate or poor weather conditions, either in the year of travel or the previous year
    (Agnew &Palutikof, 2006), act as a push factor for tourists to travel to warmer and
    drier locations (Lise&Tol, 2002). A warmer than average summer of 1ºC was found
    to increase domestic tourism expenditure in Canada by 4% (Wilton &Wirjanto, 1998,
    in Scott et al., 2008). A recent study of European households found that a better
    climate in the region of residence is related to a higher probability of travelling
    domestically, whereas poor conditions increase the chance of international travel. (Becken, 2010)

    Socio-economic factors –(e.g. accessibility, accommodation, amenities, ancillary services)Accessibility is mainly understood as a feature for disabled guests and almost never as a plus in comfort and service and, therefore, not widely used in marketing and advertising.(European Commission, 2014)

    Growth of tourism is also influenced by how well the destination is maintained for touring activities. “People are drawn to the Northwoods not because of great hotel beds or wonderful restaurants … rather; it is the endowment of forests, lakes, and recreational sites that provide the key element that represents tourism across much of this rural region.” (Anonymous)

    Ancillary Services are the 'Extras' of a holiday such as Travel Insurance, Park/Event Tickets, Car Hire, Car insurance, Airport Parking, Foreign Exchange, Luggage, Tour Guide, Chauffeur Service, etc. These are the things you would need to complete your holiday and these helps in the success of holding tourists for a longer time. 

    Historical and Cultural factors–(e.g. Great Wall of China, Pyramid of Giza, Taj Mahal, Stonehenge, etc.) Culture is increasingly being used to promote destinations and enhance their competitiveness and attractiveness. Many locations are now actively developing their tangible and intangible cultural assets as a means of developing comparative advantages in an increasingly competitive tourism marketplace, and to create local distinctiveness in the face of globalization. (OECD.org)

    Religious factors – (e.g. pilgrimage) People travel individually or in groups for pilgrimage, missionary, or leisure (fellowship) purposes. The world's largest form of mass religious tourism takes place at the annual Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Modern religious tourists are more able to visit holy cities and holy sites around the world. The most famous holy cities are Mecca, Medina, Karbala, Fátima, Jerusalem and the Vatican City. The most famous holy sites are the Great Mosque of Mecca, the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima in Cova da Iria, the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City, the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, the Western Wall in Jerusalem and the St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Religious tourism has existed since antiquity. A study in 2011 found that 2.5 million people visited Karbala on the day of Arbaeen in 2013, pilgrims visited Jerusalem for a few reasons: to understand and appreciate their religion through a tangible experience, to feel secure about their religious beliefs, and to connect personally to the holy city. (Wikipedia)

    Other factors – (e.g. Research activities of deep seas and caves, geological studies of hot springs, seismic analysis of active volcanoes, investigation of paranormal activities in abandoned ghost town

    LO3 Task 3 3.2 How Supply has Changed to Meet the Effects of Demand
    In any purchasing decision by potential tourists, there has to be a provision of a service, product or experience by a business, organization or destination to meet the visitors’ need or demand. This provision is known as tourism supply. 
    There is one underlying characteristic of the tourism industry that distinguishes it from other services and this is the way in which tourism is consumed by a mobile population who visit destination areas to consume a product, service or experience while, in contrast, the supply elements are often fixed geographically at certain places (i.e. a hotel, restaurant or visitor attraction).
    In most countries tourism operates within a free market economy, and individual businesses operate in open competition. However, in some countries certain sectors of the tourism industry receive assistance from government through infrastructure provision, marketing and promotional support from tourist boards and other agencies. It is also apparent that when governments decide to promote inbound tourism to destinations such as Bali, supply needs to be able to meet demand. In many cases, demand poses severe pressures on destinations where supply is often a step behind demand. 
    Massive expansion in demand requires that supply in all sectors of the industry keep pace, especially as the beach-resort nature of the destination was actively promoted in the 1980s and 1990s. This also raises the importance of marketing and promotion in developing a demand to fill the available supply. (FWeb Reading)
    There are several factors which have been modified in order to meet demand for the tourism products & services. These include:
    Ground handlers, excursions and activities
    Food and crafts
    These include a variety of different activities - from increasing the proportions of local goods and services used in the tourism sector, to working on environmental and socio-cultural issues, such as waste management practices, employment training and combating illegal forms of tourism.
    The accommodation sector requires considerable numbers of staff, and so has the potential to provide employment for nearby communities. However, many jobs in the accommodation sector are low paid and involve long hours and difficult shift patterns. Because of the restricted length of the tourism season in some destinations, many jobs are temporary and insecure. There is also a tendency to employ non-local labour, especially in large hotels. Improving working conditions and pay and encouraging greater employment of local labour, are all part of improving sustainability performance, and hotels and tour operators are starting to address some of these issues.
    Some large tour operators have developed environmental standards backed by training materials to assist and encourage improvements in performance by their accommodation suppliers (Kuoni Switzerland, TUI, MyTravel Northern Europe, First Choice, Hotelplan); environmental management systems are being implemented in hotel chains (Marriott, Radisson, Hilton, Accor) while a few programmes are integrated with tour operator demands or incentives such as the agreement between the Swiss tour operator Hotelplan and the Spanish hotel chain Iberostar, and some destinations are operating certification schemes to audit and reward good performance by tourism businesses on environmental aspects (Red Sea, Rimini - Italy, Alcudia - Spain, Bolivia, Seychelles, Lloret de Mar - Spain, Phuket Yacht Club - Thailand). (thetravelfoundation.org.uk)
    Transport by air, land and sea is a major area of environmental impact for the tourism industry, and one that can only partly be managed through switching to less polluting forms of transport or upgrading to more efficient transport.
    A few tour operators have schemes to promote a modal change towards use of forms of transport with lower environmental impacts, such as using trains instead of planes as the preferred form of transport for their products where feasible. 

    Ground handlers, representatives, excursions and activities
    It is important that tour guides and local representatives are trained in minimisation of environmental impacts and maximisation of local economic benefit and educating customers on the social workings of a region so as to maximise positive local impact, so that they can play their part in implementing company policies. (thetravelfoundation.org.uk)
    Food and crafts
    Food and crafts can generate considerable profits for the local population, when volume production and delivery at set quality standards can be met by local producers. Key issues for local sourcing of food supplies in the tourism sector are quality, reliability and quantity of supply. Promotion of local sourcing therefore requires training and technical support and investment - for example in storage and distribution facilities - to meet quality and reliability standards, as well as the development of production and distribution networks to gather supplies from different local producers into the quantities required by hotels. (thetravelfoundation.org.uk)

    LO4 Task 4 4.1 The Positive and Negative Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of Tourism
    Tourism is one of the most important components of the global economy. It generates billions of dollars in revenues and millions of jobs worldwide. It is considered by many communities, especially in emerging countries the only tool for development, and the only chance for increasing the quality of life.However, both the actions of investors and of tourists are having negative impacts on the socio-cultural values and environmental assets of host communities all over the world. (Paul,B)
    Tourism can bring many economic and social benefits, particularly in rural areas and developing countries, but mass tourism is also associated with negative effects. (USATODAY.com)
    Economic Effects
    Creates jobs
    Provides opportunities for small-scale business enterprises
    Generates extra tax revenues
    Cost of establishing basic infrastructure for tourism such as roads and visitor centers falls on the government (so it has to come out of tax revenues)
    Jobs created by tourism are seasonal and poorly paid
    Money generated by tourism does not always benefit the local community (e.g. hotel chains, huge international companies)
    Destinations dependent on tourism can be adversely affected by events such as terrorism, natural disasters and economic recession
    Social Effects
    Improvements to infrastructure
    New leisure amenities
    Encourages the preservation of traditional customs, handicrafts and festivals
    Interchanges between hosts and guests create a better cultural understanding and can help raise global awareness of issues such as poverty and human rights abuses
    Crowding and congestion
    Drugs and alcohol problems
    Increased crime levels
    Infringe human rights - locals being displaced from their land to make way for new hotels or barred from beaches
    Interaction with tourists can lead to an erosion of traditional cultures and values
    Environmental Effects
    Helps promote conservation of wildlife and natural resources
    Helps generate funding for maintaining animal preserves and marine parks through entrance charges and guide fees
    Reduces problems such as over-fishing and deforestation in developing nations by creating alternative sources of employment
    Poses a threat to a region's natural and cultural resources
    Causes increased pollution
    Increased sewage production
    LO4 Task 4 4.2 Strategies that can be Used to Minimize the Negative Impacts while Maximizing the Positive Impacts
    The negative impacts of tourism could deteriorate a destination, affecting the quality of life of citizens and destroying the visitors’ experience.
    Some strategies that can be used to minimize the negative impacts of tourism include:
    Water conservation
    Erosion management
    Energy conservation
    no new development that does not have a positive impact on ecosystems
    use of energy efficient lighting
    prohibiting use of straws and plastic lids at the resort to protect marine life
    Partner with organizations that provide leadership for the world in sustainability (e.g. The Global Sustainability Tourism Council, The International Ecotourism Society, etc.)

    Also, hoteliers could consider partnering with an organization that offers guests the opportunity to start their trek with a homestay; with porters and their families. Not only does this give tourists the opportunity to experience the region in a much deeper, much more personal way, a closer relationship between guests and their porters leads to a much more enjoyable and memorable trek. The visit then supports communities in a truly local way, with money going directly to the people who need it most. Programmes like this offer a much more positive form of tourism for all involved, based on real cultural learning and exchange, and which sees local communities directly benefit from tourists’ presence. If visitors continue to strive for more enriching travel coloured by unique, local experiences then we will all need to take more responsibility for the impacts this travel has. (greenhotelier.org)
    If tour operators, hotels, resorts, and destinations, begin to accelerate their movement toward sustainable tourism, the tourism crisis can indeed be a wonderful opportunity to improve the lives of many people, reduce poverty, improve the environment, and most importantly, help our world to get on a more sustainable path. (huffingtonpost.com