STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
The report will be studying about the organisations and the effects of technologies on organisation, It will be studying in detail about the sofiivare ERP that enterprise resource planning which is very helpful in running business organisation. The report will be studying about the risks that are attached to these technologies and how they can be reduced. It will be discussing about the improvements that the organisations have made by the implementation of technical systems. It sill be taking NHS for the study as example. NHS is nation health service w hich is run by government and they provide public services. Decision for investment on information system is very crucial decision that affects the grosth rate of the NHS. Positive impact information system increases the productivity of the organization but negative impact leads to reduction in market value of the busine5s.
BUSINESS PROCESS AND ERP
Setting up a business is a very complicated and long process altogether. The one who is establishing a business unit or an organisation has to keep in mind a lot of thing and has to look after many factor which need to be combined together. The business process requires plans and set of customer or market › hich needs to be decided before setting up a business. So to make the process simpler there is solution for establishing a new business that is enterprise resource planning (ERP). According to Jasanoff. (20l6j this is software which is applied in organisations to make the complicated process easier. It is said to be the best software which is been used in the business process. Every different organisation requires different sofhv are equipped with all different facilities and having a customised sof vare package is not necessary. So the technicians have come up with a solution called ERP. ERP is very useful in the business process. As per Daoud and Triki. (2013) this includes manufacturing, customer relationship management, financial accounting, human resource management and decision making system. This solvare assists in establishing and running business process effectively. This has turned out to be a helping hand for the companies and the employees or the managers. The work could be done more effectively and efficiently.
NHS is a health service centre and it is a public service centre and clear states that it has to maintain a large number of data and a large number of operations all together. This organisation has a large number of human resources engaged in it and managing that human
resource is yet another difficult task. So the organisation has implemented the ERP solvare so that the human resource could be easily maintained and the decisions and messages could be automatically sent by it. NHS is a yep big public organisation which has large number of financial transactions going on a daily basis. As per Ruivo et al. (2014) management requires skilled financial accountant employees need different software to manage the accounting transaction but ERP does that also. Now an organisation does not have to get different sofbvare for different activities of an organisation. It also helps in decision making. All the data could be feed at once and all the necessary information can be acquired at one click. The list of medicines and drugs could be automatically ordered and the one’s which are kept in stores for so long and are expired will be sent back to the wholesaler to dispose them. ERP is very useful in the business process.
DEVELOPING BUSINESS REQUIREMENT AND ERP
The requirements of the business are never ending and it just goes on and on. The organisation requires many things from highest level of business process and to the lowest level of the business process. As per Wagner and Ruhe. (2018) the day a business starts the list of requirements just continue, In terms of technology a company requires accounting sofhxare, data software, financial sofhx are, human resource software and many others, and to work on those sofbvare the organisation require skilled and professional employees to function those software. According to Turk et al. (2014) this will bring in more employees. But the organisation can install ERP sof vare instead. This will perform all the functions together and they will not have to get different software for all the different tasks. The organisation ›ill save a lot of money from that. This is very beneficial software which has reduced the work load of the managers. This is sofhvare which is applied in organisations to make the complicated process easier. It is said to be the best soM’are which is been used in the business process.
NHS is huge organisation which requires a lot of things at the same time. And the long process sofnvare cannot be applied because this will ,just increase the work load, Requirements should be decided at the time of selection of process and post-implementation of the process. As per Thiim ct at. (2014) the problems of the organisation should be well defined otheovise the vendors cannot provide solution. The company NHS need to set its requirements before implementing the process or the sofnvare. They will have to provide a training session before implementing the sofnvare. Before implementing the software the
business need to find out the current position and the future position as well so that they map the changes of before and after implementing the process. First of all NHS need to have a deep analysing of the organisation because this will help to set the priority of the ERP sofhvare. The process mapping should be done. According to Shkurti ct al. (2014) the structure of the organisation also need be set along. Then decide ERP process implementation. This will help in proper implementation of the Sofnvare and the focus area will also be set. The company NHS need to set its requirements before implementing the process or the software. The organisation sill save a lot of money from that. This is very beneficial software which has reduced the work load of the managers,
DETERMINING THE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
Like the requirements of the company the system has its own requirements. System also needs few things which should be kept in mind before installing it. Few key requirements of the system are:
Develop workshop guide: Before installing the software, a workshop should be conducted which would be explaining the working of the sofhvare and the all the necessary things shich should be kept in mind while using it. As per Abrahamsson et of. (2017) the manager should be skilled in using this software so that they can efficiently make the best use of it. The day a business staris the list of requirements
,just continues. In terms of technology a company requires accounting soM’are, data sofhvare, financial solvare. human resource sofhvare and many others. and to work on those sofhvare the organisation require skilled and professional employees to function those software
Collect requirements properly. All needs and importance of this sofiu are should be collected so that any changes could be made at the time of implementation, The system requires a lot of space for storage, internet connections should be checked, need of the sofbvare should be checked, As per Pridmore e/ aJ. (2014) the problems of the organisation should be sell defined othenx ise the vendors cannot provide solution. The company NHS need to set its requirements before implementing the process or the sofhvare. NHS is huge organisation which requires a lot of things at the same time, And the long process sofhvare cannot be applied because this will just increase the work load. Requirements should be decided at the time of selection of process and post-implementation of the process.
Ini’olvc right people: The organisation should ink olve people u ho have attended the u orkshops and u ho arc good at handling such sofiu are so that thej do not rise it u rongli . N HS u’ill have to dev elop the requirement list and the list of people u ho are good at using this softu are Any kind of itlistake can hinder in the u orking of the process. So the organisation has implemented the ERP softu are so that the human resource could be easily maintained and the decisions and messages could be automatically sent by it.
Has'e sessions with consultants: The managers should ink olve in serious and proper corn crsntion u ith the technicians and the consultants of the ERP s› sum so that the› can acquire knou ledge about the softu are and easily use this Accordign to Zerban. (2015) they should understand the process of this system and should organise u orkshop that u ill guide the employees. This is softu'are u hich is applied in organisations to make the complicated process easier It is said to be the best softu are u hich is been used in the business process
SOFTWARE AND VENDOR SELECTION
ERP softu are is an essential tool for any organisation. This tool has heavy influence on u orkin g of the organisation. This is veir bene ficial in u orkin g of the organisation and efficicnt processing of the biisincss process. This is a turnLe\ for an organisation and it hclps in manj u'aj s.
Basis of selection of softu are
Format. before installing the softu are the organisation should properly understand the process of installation. The managers should knou u hether the process is complicated or easy. As per Al-Fuqaha ct o/. (2015) tliej’ should completely understand the format of the orgunisntion.
Cost: the cost of the sofiu are is a i’en’ important factor. If the process is i’en’ costlj and thc organisation is small, The largcr organisations can afford thc soflu arc easily but the smaller organisation itiight gis e a thought once NHS is a ven' big organisation and installing this process is cost efficient
Bcncficial for functional area: before installing the process alu’a\ s notice that u hat are thc kev arcas u herc the ERP softu arc should be installed. As per Sedcra e/ al. (2015) the functions of the organisation should be studied
Flexible: the organisation should see whether the sofhi are is flexible or not. It will be adopted in all the workplace or not. The sofbvare should be properly checked and verified.
Technical needs: companies should understand the technical needs of the organisation and check whether the sofhvare which is going to be installed is fulfilling the conditions of the work or not.
Impact on end users: the impact aS the end result should be studied whether the solvare is satisfy ing the end result of the organisation or not. As per ptak and Schragenheim, (2016) if not that the major changes should be made so that it becomes beneficial for the organisation.
Basis of selection of vendor
Future planning of vendor. the organisation should check the future plans of the vendor that he has the plan to stay for a longer period in the market or not because if anything goes wrong than the vendor need to be there to fix it. According to Al- Mashari and Al-Mosheleh (2015), the vendor should be trustful and should have the intention of long term business. The vendor should be loyal and do not give false hopes.
Vendor’s recent products: the organisation should check the recent products that have been brought in by the vendor. This will state that how much the vendor is updated in the market. If the vendor is properly updated in the market then only he will be able to provide proper guidance to the organisation member.
Development of vendor: how well and rapidly the vendor has developed is very important to check. As per Frejik and Powell, (2015) the vendor must have seen a progress then only in future he xvill be able to provide new and developed services to the organisation. If he is scared to develop and grow then se will never nes products or functions to the organisation.
Specialised experience: the vendor should be experienced and he should have complete knowledge about the software and the process of installation. The vendor must be equipped with proper guidance of the technical languages so that he xvill be able to teach the members of the organisation.
WAYS THROUGH WHICH COMPANIES USES TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE ITS EFFICIENCY
Online collaborations. the company and organisation should hate softu are and applications u hich hclp in online collaborations and performs the functions online, Online collaborations help in gro» ing the business and expanding it in u orld -u ide. Collaborations hclp in establishing its netu’ork and connections with thc companies that hai’e been set up outside the countn’ The counts u ill get new’ companies and u ill be able to gro» better With the help of online collaborations. NHS u'ilI be able to collaborate u’ith the countries that have better treatments and that u’ould cost less The medications could also be ordered at cheaper rates from the best dealers.
Share uJidatcs: getting technologies and application that maLcs sharing updates easier and faster. With the help of such softu are information could be transferred and spread to different organisations and to different centres Mam updates could be shared nation to nation and if › cry necessan those updates can be installed to This makes automatic update easy and corn enient to. As per Nu ankpa (2015) this u ould make running business i’eri easy N HS also has many applications like these so that they can coin ej their messages u orldwide and their updates too Transferring the information from organisation to organisation is a complicated task so fen technologies are nu’ented so that the updates and the information could be casily transferred
Digitalisation: even tasL of the organisation should be coin erted into digital formats so that it reduces the time and the process east . Phd sical presence u’ould not be much necessao and it u’oiild maLe the task simpler As per Sedera e/ n/. (2015) the companies should coitipulsorilj have digital format so that it u ould increase the security of the data stored and ei’ein thing could be corn erted into electronic form. NHS has its inanj of the consultation see iccs in electronic form so that patients can consult a doctor from any part of the nation. The data that is stored in electronic form so that thc chances of risk is reduccd and the data is stored safclj . With thc hclp of such softu are information could be transferred and spread to different organisations and to different centres. This u ill pcrform all the functions togcthcr and thci u ill not ma e to get different softer are for all the different tasks.
INCREASE IN LEVEL OF EFFICIENCY AFTER IMPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY
Malte implementation process easj With the help of teclmologies and ERP the life of organisations hax’e tiimcd easicr. The ii’ork load has been rcduced Efficicnci of the u ork has been reduced and the let eI of groin th has been obseri ed. NHS has experienccd efficienc; sincc the\ have ERP system and that has achiei’ed them success through such technologies.
ImJirovc analytics: these technologies have improved the anale tics serf ice so better and accurate. NHS has attained the details about the patients and dealer so quickly u ith this st stem, As per Sternad ZabuLoi’s”ek and Bobek. (2G17) the company NHS need to set its rcqti ircincnts before implementing the process or the soflu arc. The› u ill mate to provide a training session before implementing the softu are Before implementing the software the business need to find out the current position and the future position as u ell so that they map the clian ges of before and after iinplementin g the process
Strong project management: ERP and i arious other technologies hat e dci eloped the project managcment techniques u ith thc help of professionals and skilled managers As per Efe, (2016) NHS has also impro ’ed the project management u ith the help of ERP and the; hax’e achiei’ed grou th u ith help of such tcchnologies.
Accuracy and safety of data: all soft» are is good at storing data and these helps in collection of data. The softu are is high at security and the data stored is also highly safe and the tecluiologies ma e also reduccd the chances of threat and flu data is stored safelj .
Technical support: the organisations are getting stronger at tcchnical background. As per Kilic e/ n/, (2G 15) they are installing sofiu are for reducing the u ork load and attaining efficiency in u ork process and easy transactions could be made u ith the help of technologies. Technical aspects hai’e been proi’en as helping hund of the organisations. This mill bring in more employees. But the organisation can install ERP sofli are instcad.
Better coordination beta ecn departments u ith the help of tecluiologies. sending messages from one departmcnt to another within no seconds is achiei‘able, The coordination amongst the depanments has been iitiproved and the u ork is also done on time. These technologies help in reduction of time taken for operations. NHS has
its mam of the consultation seri’ices in electronic form so that patients can consult a doctor from any part of the nation.
POTENTIAL SECURITY RISK AND DATA BREACH
There are tu o tj pes of risk tin ol› ed in data security risk at NHS That is physical risk and non-physical risk.
The risk that causes phs sical damage is called physical risk.
a) External risk: thc risk that is directly damaged bj the external factor comes under external risk Such as lighting. flood. earthquake.
b) Internal risk. the risk causes internal damage is called internal damage. Such as fire. unstablc pou er supply and humidity in the room.
c) Human rislt: the risk that is caused by human falls under human risk. Such as accident, disnipting. accident and intentional crrors.
Non-ph ’sical risk
a) Loss and corruption of system duta: technical things may sometimes get disrupted through arious u ays If the sjst@n is not properly updated then also it inaj cause corruption of the data If the data has been sai’ed in the u’rong format then also it may get corrupted,
b) Loss of sensitive information: i’en’ sensitii’e information can also get deleted by liuinans intentionally or by mistake According to Kilic ct al. (2014) if the data one s deleted or ruined can also be recoi’ered but in fen cases onl› . The data should be stored properly and then it should be checked as u ell.
c) The› arc installing softu are for reducing the u ork load and attaining cfficicnci in u ork process and easy transactions could be made north the help of technologies winch so much compctitii c in nature that the› spa and u atch the system of other s› stern and this is called illegal monitoring. This should be called as crime and the employee should be punished for doing so.
d) Cyber security breaches: in cyber hubs u here all the data has been secured and the sai’ed is under high scciirity but still u ith few’ cybcr hacks those data can be revealed
and then the data is been leaked This is a crime and the person found doing so u ill be
barred from the department.
Virus: i’irus is found if the data one’s deleted or ruined can nlso be recoi’ered but in fen cases only As per Ptak and Scluagenlieiitl, (201G) the data should be stored properh and then it should be checked as u ell. They are installing softu nre for reducing the u ork load and attaining efficiency in u ork process and easj transactions could be made u ith the help of technologies.
GUIDELINES ON HOW THE RISK CAN BE MITIGATED
View IT landscape: the task that liar e been perfonned by the NHS should be checked and looked upon. As per Ruii’o er of. (2014) u hichci’cr area the data is bGing used should be focused and highlighted to keep a check on it oi’eralI security of the organisation in technical terms should be increased and all the passu ords and data should be kept and stored more properl› so that the daia is not breached and no one can use that data in wrong manncr
Automation of enterprise security: the security in case is lacking someu here then that should bc propcrlj updated and the task that rcquires more data and information should be checked and verified so thnt the chances of risk reduces and the security can be achiei ed. Whichever area the data is being used should be focused and highlighted to kccp a chcck on it.
Imt›ro› c o› er;tll security: oi’erall security of the organisation in technical terms should be increased and all the passu ords and data should be kept and stored more properly so that the data is not breached and no one can use that data in u ron g manner. As per Daoud and Triki (2G 13) whichci‘0r area the data is being used should be focused and highlighted to keep a check on it.
Prohibit cntry , if the person is not related to any particular project and if still is constantly wandering around that sj stem then that area should be prohibited and no one should bc allou’ed to entcr an\ place u here the data is storcd or kcpt. Such places should be under high security and under security caitieras
Priv'acy controls’ prn’aci controls should be actii’ated by IT experts at NHS and these keys should be properly used to make the sistem safe froiti tlueats and risk. Whichever area the data is being used should be focused and highlighted to keep a check on it
In this report ii e hat e studied about ERP systeiti and the importance of this systeiti We hai‘e studied thc risk and how to reduce the risk The companies should compulsorily hai’e digital format so that it u’ould increase the security of the data stored and ei’eri thing could be cornerted into electronic form. NHS has its many of the consultation see ices in electronic form so that patients can consult a doctor from any part of the nation, The company NHS need to set its requirements before implementing the process or the softu are NHS is huge organisation u hich requires a lot of things at the saine time.NHS is huge organisation u hich requires a lot of things at the same time. And the long process soflu arc cannot be applied becausc this u ill just increase the u ork load. Requirements should be decided at the time of selection of process and post-nnplcmentalion of the process.
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