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    Protecting and managing

    Protecting and managing

    Protecting and managing ecology in cities

    Protecting and managing ecology in cities
    The main objective of the ecology is to understand the distribution and abundance of the species living in the same biodiversity. These are highly influenced human biotopes associated with the assemblages of the species. Maintenance and protection of the urban biodiversity helps to possess an intrinsic value. Thus, it is a threat to the ecological balance in the cities.
    Key Information
    Ecology is termed as a scientific study or analysis that deals with the interaction between the organisms and their environment with respect to the biotic components. This field includes the biology, geography and study of earth science. The ecology focuses on the on understanding how the biodiversity affects the ecological functions. Childers et al. (2015, p.3776),  mentioned that the ecological functions are dependent upon the life processes, interaction and adaptation to the environment. The focuses, on the understanding of the material movement and the energy through the living communities should be of major concern. Ecology defines the abundance and distribution of the life processes in the biodiversity. Schewenius et al. (2014, p.437),  stated that the term ecology describes various life forms, ecological roles and their genetic diversity. While scientists urge that, the relative enormity of deforestation and genetic diversity affects upon the biological environment, loss of populations, species and the ecological communities. Only species with most general habitats and resource requirements have remained in the urban corridors. 
    The part of the world's total population living in the cities is expected to surpass 60% by the year 2020. Thus, the management and planning of the urban areas are very important. Urban biodiversity is very essential for the residents as recreational areas and the presence of appreciated property prices in the neighborhood. Rather than important to the residents, the urban green areas also have intrinsic ecological values. The urban town planning must support a rich habitat and offer a high species diversity that may even include the endangered and threatened species. However, urbanization causes the threat to many species and natural habitat. Thus, while implementing urban planning the natural habitats of the other species should be taken into consideration. For example, the red panda was found in the Himalayas in abundance. They spend most of the time in the trees. However, their population in the recent years has dropped significantly due to the climatic changes. Adverse effects of urbanization must be measured to protect the natural habitats and urban sustainability. Lack of governmental policies increases the risk to the natural habitats. Andersson et al. (2014, p.450),  commented that the government should be concerned about the ecology while implementing and planning the urban development.  The human activities like mining and deforestation degrade the ecology, which diminishes the ecosystem and the value of the society. Many ecosystem services such as Clean Air project help in improving the environmental conditions. The government's initiative to clean cities helps in improving the balance in the ecosystem. 
    Financial Implications 
    The greenhouse gasses emission is the major problem in the urban areas. In Sydney, about eighty percent of the greenhouse gasses are emitted from the major industries. Thus, reducing greenhouse gasses and adapting the climatic changes will help in reducing the carbon footprints in the urban areas. As Energy Efficiency Master Plan, adopting energy efficiency technologies can save up to a cost of $200 million annually. It will not only help to reduce the carbon emission but also increase the sustainability of the resources. As per the budget, the government has proposed an investment of $10 million to accelerate the use of renewable energy by the local business and residents. This mechanism will include aggregated purchases, Green Power and community projects to enhance the use of renewable energy. Sotirov at al. (2015, p.989) commented that the local government authorities were successful in reducing twenty percent of the emission by 2006. The governmental authorities have conducted programs to make the residents and business aware of the renewable energy and low-carbon use. The government is working with the commercial building owners through the Better Business Partnership policies. It has helped to reduce the emission rate by forty-five percent and has saved up to $25 million electricity cost. The government aims to invest $30 million from the budget in the solar power project. The solar power project will provide renewable energy to the public and private sectors for commercial use. Another salient feature of this project is that the power plant will be able to power five thousand homes in addition. Wang (2017, p.257) mentioned that National Energy productivity Plan, initiated by the federal government ensures to improve Sydney's energy production by forty percent between the year 2015 to 2030. This plan will reduce the energy cost, greenhouse emission and will improve the competitiveness.
    The governmental strategies and action plans are important in improving the ecology in Sydney. The government is focused defining their actions by 2021 and achieving them by 2031. The governmental strategies will result in 70 percent reduction of the greenhouse gases emission level by 2030 and zero percent by 2050. Thus, it is important for the governmental authorities must have a strong record of accomplishment of the carbon footprints. Johnson and Ali (2017, p.29) stated that the major sources of the greenhouse gasses emission are the industries. Almost eighty percent of the greenhouse gasses are emitted from the industries. Thus, the government must work parallel to the industries will help in reducing the carbon and greenhouse gasses emission. The government should work together with other communities to divert the waste generated from the landfills to protect and recycle the drinking water supplies. Hirsch (2014, p.519) proposed that this will not only enhance the urban ecology but also keep the cities clean and environment-friendly. The government should be committed to maintaining strong action plans, which will increase the cultural, social and economic values of the communities. Managing the impact of the urban life on the environment and adapting the climatic changes is a crucial step towards making the cities more resilient.
    The world climate is constantly changing due to the increase in the greenhouse gasses emission. Rising temperature, new patterns of precipitation and other environmental changes are already affecting the ecology and the natural environment. Irga et al. (2017, p.167) mentioned that the climatic changes are transforming the ecosystem on a large scale in an extraordinary pace. The climatic changes are occurring at a global scale but the impact of it occurs locally and varies from place to place and mostly in the urban areas. Thus, there is a need to change the existing practices for reducing the pace of the environment changes. Human actions are the primary causes to the climatic changes. Lin (2017, p.39) mentioned that the climatic changes affect the environment and the ecology. It causes an adverse effect on the species and their ecosystem. Thus, it has become necessary to change the human practices, which are affecting the natural ecosystem. Relatively rapid rise in Earth's temperature has been documented over the years at both the surface and oceans. If the greenhouse gases emission rates increase on the current track then the earth will be warmer by 15.5 degree Fahrenheit in 2100. In 1990, it was recorded to be 1.3 degree Fahrenheit. Thus, it is important to use the renewable sources of energy, which will avoid the overuse of the natural resources and will help in sustainable growth. The human activities and natural variability are the main causes of the global warming and climatic changes. Karamichas (2015, p.29) stated that the greenhouse gasses make a huge impact on the climatic change. Joss et al. (2013, p.56) mentioned that the increase in the carbon dioxide and methane content into the atmosphere are the major threats to the environment. It affects the natural environment and makes a adverse effect on human health and other species. About eighty-five percent of the greenhouse emission is from the industries sector and fifteen percent from the domestic sector. Talbot at al. (2014, p.6345) proposed that harmful gasses and chemical are released to the environment without proper treatment. This untreated gasses and chemicals pollute the natural environment, which causes adverse effect to the human health and ecology. Thus, planting more number of trees will help in reducing the carbon content is present in the atmosphere. Holz et al. (2015, p.447) proposed that higher amount of carbon dioxide increases the plant growth. However, plants also need other important nutrients as if nitrogen and phosphorus are also required for growth and survival. Thus, without adequate nutrients the plant growth is restricted. As per reports, the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere has increased by fifty percent in the recent years. Increased carbon dioxide levels have resulted in ocean acidification by thirty percent.   
    The local government in Sydney plays a major role in global warming. Local and international advocacy groups form the climate action network of Australia (CANA) in 1998. The CANA aims to understand the mutual and cooperative civil society for effectively meeting the challenges posed by the climatic changes. They give high priority to the healthy environment and development that meets the present need without compromising with the ability of future generations. WWF Australia is a global conservation network, which focuses on the protection of the biodiversity and the environment. The WWF is implementing positive actions on global warming; ocean acidification and climate change affect each aspect of the conservation. Australia is prone to effects of global warming as projected in the next fifty years. Due to the arid and semi-arid areas, warm climate and water supply pressure. Parker et al. (2017, p.265) commented that the global warming possesses negative impacts upon the environment of the continent. As per reports, Australia has been designated as one of the most vulnerable to the climatic change. Australia's average temperature is expected to increase by twenty percent by the year 2030. Mansour (2017, p.12) proposed that the average rainfall in the southwest and southeast is projected to decrease by the year 2030, while the northwest regions are expected to have heavy rainfall. Moreover, the coastline erosion in Australia has increased from 8cm to 88cm. Kahui and Richards (2014, p.6) stated that these changes in the climate have resulted in a diverse climatic change for Australia's environment. Australia is a major coal consumer and exporter, which leads to huge mining activities in the country. Livne‐Luzon et al. (2017, p.1201) commented that Australia is the eighth highest CO2 gases emitter, which is the main reason for the changing climate and global warming in the country. Thus, reducing the coal consumption will result in reducing the environmental pollution and dealing with the present climatic condition the government needs to impose various awareness programmers and funds.
    Climatic change: The climatic change is a change in the statistical change in the weather pattern. As projected by reports Sydney is a more prone to the effects of the climatic change. The arid and semi-arid regions and warm climate increases the risk factors. It is projected that the rainfall in the southeast and the southwest will decline in the recent years while the northeast regions are projected to have more rainfall. Bushfire in 2009 occurred due to the climatic changes. Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 should look after the matter and important reforms must be added to the policy so that it is strictly followed and both the interest of the people and environment is protected
    Greenhouse gases emission: The greenhouse gas emission is a major threat to the environment. The greenhouse gasses emission results in the depletion of the ozone layer and results in global warming. Thus, proper policies should be implemented to reduce the emission of the greenhouse gases. The government should pose restrictions to the overuse of the natural resource. The government should create awareness for people to use recycling methods. Commonwealth Marine Rese and the Biosecurity bill must be reformed to take important measures on the factors that are leading to the emission of the greenhouse gases. 
    The local government authorities undertake projects to interact with the people for the purpose of spreading awareness. They also suggest and implement ways to deal with the problems related to the environmental problems. The government should implement a strict rule in the industries so that the harmful gasses are not directly supplied to the atmosphere. The government should form departments who will be responsible to measure the hazards caused due to the industries and implement necessary ways to deal with the issues.