EXPLORATION OF PHARMACOLOGY CASE: CEREBRAL VASCULAR ATTACK
In the given case study of Greta Ainija Balodis, it has been seen that Greta has been passed through Cerebral Vascular Accident, as it has been diagnosed. The victim has been taken into the consideration under the rehabilitation, as there have been found resolving dysphagia and sided hemiplegic. In the following essay, it has been described about the presentation of pharmacology in the respective case, identifying relevant symptoms of interventions of pharmacology (Nutt et al. 2015). Further, it has been discussed in detail about the succinct understanding of them, links between the pharmacology theory and context and pharmacology in treatment of asthma, orthopedic trauma, and stroke.
2.0 Criteria for Pharmacological Treatment
Pharmacology has been considered as a biology branch, which has been found with the focus on the study of effects and side effects of various drugs (Dyer et al. 2017). In this context, drugs have been considered as endogenous, man-made or natural molecules. These have effects on cells in psychological and biological scenario, such as on organs, tissues, functions of the organs and so. However, in the given context of the case study of Greta Balodies, it has been seen that the pharmacological treatment exerts effects both positively as well as negatively on the physical along with psychological statement of the victim. The victim has been found with the side effects of respective medications mentioned over the case study. The effects have been encountered as loss of temper, increasing tendency of asthma, increasing rate of hypertension, lack of communication with the family, deterioration of health condition constantly, mental weaknesses and so on (Eysenck, 2017). The victim has been found to have decreasing health and mental statement due to adjustment with the family, changing behavior of the family members, relate to the unknown and unwanted individuals and so on.
2.1 Understanding the Presence of Pharmacology in the Case
Pharmacological treatment has both the positive and negative effects on individuals, who have been found under such treatment (Jain et al. 2015). Especially, in the cases of cerebral accident, the victims have been found with negative effects of the treatment for the medications provided by the treatment. In the given case study it has been seen that the victim has to intake Panadol PO 500 mg prn and Atenolol PO 50 mg on daily basis.
Panadol PO 500 MG prn
Greta Ainija Balodis had three falls in the past six weeks and cerebral vascular accident. So taking on this drug will help her calm down the pain. It will also help decrease the body temperature with the help of this paracetamol. The generic name of Panadol has been known as Paracetamol, and its drug class has been depicted as fever reducer or pain reliever. This comes up with the side effects of nausea, loss of appetite, cramps in stomach, vomiting, excessive sweating, diarrhea, tenderness in stomach area, pain, swelling and so on (Feigelman et al. 2017).
Atenolol PO 50 mg
Atenolol has been found to be in such drug class, which helps to reduce the Greta Ainija Balodis’s chest pain, hypertension and also prevent from heart attack. Generic name of Atenolol has been found to be beta-blockers. However, Atenolol has been found unable to pass through the barriers of brain-blood. Overdose of this medicine has an adverse effect of occurring of stroke, myocardial infarction, other cardiovascular disorders or complications (Satoskar et al. 2015).
Digoxin PO 125 mcg, Aspirin PO 100 mg and Clopidogrel PO 75 mg
After having the cerebral vascular accident, Greta has been seen under the medications of
Digoxin PO 125 mcg, Aspirin PO 100 mg and Clopidogrel PO 75 mg on a daily basis. Digoxin PO has been found with the generic name of Digoxin, which comes under the drug class of cardiac glycoside. This drug is for treating Greta’s heart failure, stroke, internal hemorrhage and blood clots (Liira et al. 2015). Besides the uses of the Digoxin, there also has been found some side effects, which may be harmful for Greta as mental weaknesses, changes in mood, problems in vision, inability to meet daily cores and so on. Aspirin PO comes under the drug class of anti-inflammatory drug which is non-steroidal and the generic name of the drug has been found as acetylsalicylic acid. This drug in Greta’s case is used for decreasing the potential risks of death after passing through the accident of heart attack, stroke or cerebral attack (Nutt et al. 2015).
Side effects of the respective medicine have been found as heartburn, stomach upset and so on. Clopidogrel PO has been found with the generic name of Plavix and the drug class of this medicine has been known as anti-platelet. The respective medicine has been found with the uses in prevention to have stroke or heart attack again for Greta. This has been found to have occurred who have passed through an accident of heart attack in the past, and also to reduce the chances of death for Greta’s stroke. Pain in abdomen, chest pain, drowsiness, headache, severe bleeding, allergenic reactions, muscle aches and so on, have been found as the side effects of the respective medicine. From the discussion of the pharmacological presence of the medications in the provided case study, it can be said that the side effects of the medications have affected negatively as the age of the victim (73) has been found comparatively high. Again, it can be seen from the respective case study that Greta has been suffering from resolving dysphasia and sided hemiplegic because of passing through the accident of cerebral vascular attack. This has been found to be impacted in the daily life of the victim, as the victim has to move with the help of a three-pronged stick. This eventually discourages the mental condition of the victim, being unable to mobilize as before (Milani et al. 2017).
2.2 Symptoms Related to Pharmacological Interventions
In general, pharmacological intervention can develop some psychological changes in the behavior of the individual, who has been found under the treatment of pharmacology. The changed behavior symptoms can be headed as aggression, lack of socialization, shouting, disturbance in sleep, wandering, depression, agitation etc (Nutt et al. 2015). From the given case study, there has been found two different types of symptoms in the behavior of the victim, which arises due to the interventions of pharmacological treatment. The victim has been found to be under the medications of Aspirin PO 100mg, Digoxin PO 125mcg and Clopidogrel PO 75mg on a daily basis. These medications have affected Greta in such a manner, that there have been seeing changes in her behavior. She has been found unable to adjust with family as she used to stay alone and has been found with the fear of being attacked with stroke again. Such medicines could help Greta to adjust with her family which is important for her in such critical health situation.
2.3 Understanding the Symptoms Related to Interventions of Pharmacology
It has been found from the given case study that the victim has been going through depression after getting the feeling that the family members have been changed in a bad way. The victim has also been found with the symptoms of lack of socialization. It can be seen from the case study that the individual used to stay in home for a long time, therefore after being discharged from the healthcare organization, has become unable to share the respective place of the individual with the family. The victim also has been found having hypertension, from the past medical history, which has been increased under the pharmacological treatment. The victim has been found facing the problem of diminishing health condition due to the adverse effects of the medications and also has faced the increasing weaknesses health wise as well as mentally (Nutt et al. 2015).
2.4 Theory in Support of Pharmacology Context
For stroke, pharmacological treatment has been divided into the categories of stroke prevention and the treatment of stroke-specific. In the treatment of stroke, pharmacological procedure has been found to be depended on the type of stroke. The types of strokes have been divided into two types which have been headed under hemorrhagic and the other is ischemic (Satoskar et al. 2015).
From the given case study of Greta, it has been seen that the victim had to pass through the accident of cerebral vascular attack, which has been considered under the category of the ischemic stroke. Pharmacologic treatment for ischemic stroke of primary phase has been found to be the activators of tissue plasminogen. Under the defined conditions of pharmacologic treatment, anti-platelet molecules have been used for the ischemic stroke category (Liira et al. 2015).
Aspirin has been considered as the only one oral anti-platelet molecule that can be used as the evaluated pharmacological treatment in the case of acute ischemic category of stroke. The therapy of Aspirin has been found to be applied within 24 to 48 hours on the victim, of the attack of ischemic stroke and should not be started before the completion of 24 hours of ischemic stroke. However, for some of the victims of ischemic stroke, who have been found unable to accept the pharmacologic treatment with therapy of aspirin, it has been recommended to start the aspirin therapy with the dosage of 150 to 325 mg. However, there has been found increase in the risks for the victims to be bled with the use of aspirin. This can also be seen as beneficial as it makes the victim bled that prevents the victim to have the attack of ischemic stroke. Pharmacologic treatment for the stroke of ischemic category cannot be withdrawn, after assessing that the victim has been found the attack of acute stroke of ischemic category. The pharmacologic treatment of ischemic stroke has been found to be able to identify the prevention procedures and the recurrences for the ischemic stroke by controlling the risk factors of the metabolism (Feigelman et al. 2017).
These metabolic risk factors have been identified as lipids and blood pressure and blood circulation through arteries and veins. Taking the blood pressure under control by making the pressure of blood flow low, the chances of ischemic stroke can be reduced to up to 40%. This can be done without any clear evidence, which has been found to be in the favor of specific class of antihypertensive. Benefits can be seen with the reduction of blood pressure when the pressure of blood flow has been achieved (Satoskar et al. 2015). The current strategies of pharmacological treatment for the ischemic stroke have been found to mirror the personals who are employed in the syndromes of coronary. Although, the important differences between the versatility and the effectiveness of principal agents has been found to have emerged among the settings of clinical treatment of pharmacology in the case of ischemic stroke (Feigelman et al. 2017).
Maximum types of ischemic strokes have been found to be treated under the pharmacological treatment for ischemic stroke, which has been found to have come under the Food and Drug Administration (Das, 2017). The Food and Drug Administration has been set as the body, which has the power to approve the usage of drugs for various treatments of ischemic strokes. The Tissue Plasminogen Activator has been found to be given through the therapy of intravenous and it has been found to be working as the dissolver of the clots of blood and help to circulate the blood through the brain, by depriving the flow of blood inside the brain of the victim.
The usefulness of medications or the pharmacological treatment has been found to be related to the treatment for ischemic stroke which exerts of the effects of drugs. It has been found as important for understanding the intended drug effects, as well as the side effects of the applied medications for the accident which occur due to cerebral vascular attack (Nutt et al. 2015). Initially, the studies related to the effects and side effects of drugs have been found to be aimed at the elucidation of the mechanisms that have been found to have come under the pharmacological treatment of stroke and other specified diseases.
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