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    Healthcare

    PATIENT’S INVOLVEMENT IN HEALTH CARE

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    PATIENT’S INVOLVEMENT IN HEALTH CARE


    Significant of study
    Involvement of the patients in the healthcare process is an important aspect of the patient cantered care process. In today's world, the means of enhanced health services have relied on this specific care practice. From the topic, it can be suggested that patience involvement in health care decision plays one of the most important role. Most positive side of patience involvement is that it increases proper cooperation from side of patience. Therefore, it helps the medical practitioner to understand the patient viewpoint on the particular diseases patient can also understand in which way medical practitioners is going to perform their task. 
     
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    Figure 1: Person centered framework 
    Apart from that this kind of performance helps to build up trust in between patience and medical practitioner.  With the help of patient involvement in the health care it is possible to reduce or sort every kind of critical dilemma that actually affect mentally and physically all the patient. If patient can speak out or expresses their opinion according to their thinking ability then it will help the medical practitioner to understand patient's requirements and opinion on that particular matter (Grol et al. 2013). It will help the health care centre to improve their decision. Persons cantered care is very much important to improve the decision making power.        
     
    Question for literature review
    In which way patient’s involvement enhances better outcomes in health care decisions 
     
    Search strategy
    The evidences collected for the study were collected through a specific search strategy. The evidences were collected online using the databases approved by the university. In this regard, databases like Scopus, Medline and CINNAL were consulted primarily. In the search process, the relevance of the search words has been taken care of. The process involved, at the first point, using search factors related to care results, patient’s involvement and care process. In the second stage the findings were specified through using different And, Nor, Or gate components. The search process has been thus effective and relevant.
    In the selection process of the articles several factors have been taken care of. It was ensured that the article had been written in English language. The contemporaneity of the article has been respected. In this respect no article published before 2010 had been entertained. The relevance of the keywords as well as the relevance of the content found has been assured as well.
     
    Summary of evidence
    The study was actually examined based on four factors that plays most important role and contributes to the patience involvement in the healthcare system. All those factors are Collaboration with professionals. The evidences have surfaced that collaboration in between medical practitioner and patient helps any healthcare organization to make their policy in proper way. Some time patient’s involvements and innovative suggestion help the particular health organization to make different kind of decision (Coulter et al. 2014). Apart from that patient involvement helps the healthcare organization to improve their social and health care services. To a large extent it will reduce the distance in between medical practitioner and service user and if the distance can be reduced then it is possible to develop the environment of the health care organization. 
     
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    Figure 2: Collaboration with professionals
     
    A proper collaboration between the patient and the care professional might take the shape of relationship of trust. This trust plays a great role on the care process. Enhanced level of trust improves the decision taken in the care process and thus, enhances the efficiency of the care process (Vahdat et al. 2014). Hence, this kind of environment automatically creates that kind of environment where prudence and practitioner can exchange their opinion and best possible opinion will be granted to make effective decision. Apart from  that  the evidence have also  surfaced in some factors that are  this  kind of collaboration  help to make developmental capacity and decision making ability of both the service provider and services reviver.  Therefore better outcomes are come out from this kind of practice. 
     
    Patient empowerment 
    The evidence have surfaced that it is not possible for any patient to empower himself and  patient cannot be empowered by the  medical practitioner it is one kind of personal process that  enables  environment (Reeves et al. 2013). Apart from that, it can also be suggested that empowerment is process that are likely to occur. If the patient is empowered then it will help the entire patient to make their decision in proper way. Patient empowerment is directly related with the involvement process because if the patient gets empowered then it will help them to provide strength based approach at the time of health care delivery. 
     
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    Figure 3: Rate of Mortality 
     
    Then medical practitioner also focuses on their competences rather those other factors. If  the patient get empowered then  they can point out all those policy errors and non ethical issues that are present in the healthcare organization. Apart from that patient empowerment also increases patient's health consciousness (Pomey et al. 2015). As a result, it can reduce the mortality rate. From the above  mentioned diagram it can be suggested that mortality  rate is decreasing  is  Australia  and  more patient  empowerment will reduce this  rate. Apart from that it can be suggested empowerment is a process that can overshadow the involvement and allow all the patients to think in some broader extend. Therefore, it will make some positive impact on the result of the health care.  
     
    Shared decision-making
    The study of the articles has surfaced that, the cause of improvement in the care results due to enhancement in the patient's participation in care process is the formulation of an environment of shared decision-making (Tambuyzer, Pieters & Van Audenhove, 2014). In a detached environment, the doctors are forced to take decision regarding the patients without any input from the concerned patient. On the other hand, involvement of the patient makes this situation cosy through their valued observations and opinions regarding their health needs. 
     
     
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    Figure 4: Patient and full time staff 
     
    The number of patients in Australia per full time health care professional is one of the most obvious reasons of this betterment in the care process after the involvement of the patients. The number of health staffs in respect to that of the patients demonstrates a need of collaboration among them for better service outcomes. A shared decision-making involves both the parties in the health process, the doctors and the patient with their individual experiences (Whiston, Barry & Darker, 2017). The doctor is an expert in the medical technicalities where the patient is knowledge about the health needs. Proper collaboration between them enhances the efficiency of the healthcare process. The study of the articles has also surfaced a limitation in this process. Often there is only one good or medically sound way of treat is available and at this moment there is no significance of SDM. On the other hand, when the patient is unable to decide that the health needs or health issues, it is the responsibility of the doctor to decide on own. 
     
    Formality of involvement 
    The study of the articles surfaced that there are different kind of procedure that are maintained by the patient and most of the cases patient go through with formality of involvement. It can be consider as the structured and organized involvement approaches. With the help of this kind of involvement, it can be suggested that it will help the healthcare organization to revive their policy requirements, emphasize vision, and guide line statement. This kind of structure and organised involvement policy help the patient to make their decision in proper manner or in organized way patient can express their decision to the practitioner and with the help of this opinion practitioner  can reconstruct their policy. Another involvement approaches that are also surfaced from the evidence is routine involvement and it is less organized approach rather than structured involvement. According to O'Brien et al. (2017), the process it can be suggested that patients get not actively involved in routine involvement processes
     
    Critical review of evidence
    The review of the articles has been conducted through the set methodology. The selection and the collection of the evidences have retained a clarity and authenticity regarding their acceptability. The focus of the study has been the reason behind the success of care process through patient involvement. In the evidence analysis process, it has been surfaced that, one of the articles centers on the involvement of the patient regarding some specific health issue (O'Brien et al. 2017). Other articles, on the other hand, have successfully contributed towards the focal point of the study. One of the evidences has focused on the topic from a slightly different angle. The involvement of the family members of the patients has also been considered (Whiston, Barry & Darker, 2017). A portion of the evidences has also focused on the health issue of specific conditions and the importance of involvement in that particular respect. Thus, the generalization of the topic has not been achieved (Tambuyzer, Pieters & Van Audenhove, 2014). In addition to these factors, some evidences were collected locally and hence lack a universal acceptance. Thus the evidences lack in terms of universality. 
     
    Strength and limitation
    From the  literature  it can be constructed that and it  become possible  to  point out all  the  positive factors that  are helping  all  the  health care organization  by involving their respective patience. From the discussion it can be suggested that involvement of patients can enhance their   empowerment and decision making ability. Apart from that it can also be suggested collaboration with the professional also increase the involvement ability of the patient and developed their decision making power. Strength of literature review is it also allows formally involvement of the patient. All this can be considered as the strength of the literature review. Some limitations are present in the literature review. From the critical review it can be suggested that all the evidence that are collected is based on specifically on HIV and mental health. Therefore it becomes not possible to collect general evidence of all the patients of different diseases. It creates a major limitation. Apart from that  all the data  that are collected  in the  LR  is  based  on local data therefore lack of  universal  data can be constructed as  one of  the limitation. All this limitation creates some kind of obligation at the time of making some analysis. Therefore it can be considered as the limitation of the literature review. 
     
    The relevance and impact of findings and identified gaps
    It  can be constructed from the literature review that  all the discussion and  evidence that are collected  from the various kinds of  resources  are relevant because with the help of  this e point of view it is  possible to understand the importance of  the patience  involvements  and at the same time with the help of this relevant data it become possible to understand  the exact scenario. Apart  from that it can also be suggested  that  there are still present  some gaps and  that are lack of universal data .All the data  that are collected in this  review based  on  local data. It can be suggested that all the evidence that are collected is based on specifically on HIV and mental health 
     
    Conclusion
    From the above mentioned discussion  it can be suggested  that patient  involvement  is one of the most important  thing which  will  enhance and improve  decision  making ability of  the health care organization or it can also be suggested involvement of patients can improve decision  making ability of any healthcare organization. From the  above mentioned  literature  review it can be constructed that are  four  evidence are  collected and from that evidence it can also be suggested in which way all this critical factors  increase  the  patient  involvement  in a  health care department. Apart from that from the  discussion it can  also   be suggested that at  the  time of decision  making  health care organization  and  practitioner also  achieve better outcomes  if  they  provide proper significance to the patients outcomes.