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    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY CASE ASSIGNMENT HELP

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    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY CASE ASSIGNMENT HELP


    EXPLORATION OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY CASE


    Introduction
    The determination of the main aspects and features of a diseased condition (or any other abnormality, for that matter) is one of the most important matters for consideration on the part of healthcare professionals and caretakers such as the doctors and the attending nurses. The following sections aim to provide the main details and aspects related to the pathophysiology of Compartment Syndrome, with a specific focus on the details of the case of Leigh Richards, who has suffered from tremendous injuries to the leg after being involved in an accident. The various effects of the Compartment Syndrome on the musculoskeletal system have been detailed and discussed in an intricate manner as well. The discussions pertaining to the main signs and symptoms displayed by the patients suffering from the aforementioned condition have been provided in the following sections of the study as well. Herein, this study is about the pathophysiology of Compartment Syndrome, with a specific focus on the main aspects and features of the case study of Leigh Richards.  
     
    Pathophysiology of Compartment Syndrome
    The Compartment Syndrome is defined as the condition in which the advent of an insufficient magnitude of blood supply to the tissues within a certain region is observed as a result of a drastic increase in the overall pressure within certain compartments of the body. The condition in question can be classified into acute and chronic types, with the former being the result of traumas arising from causes such as crash injuries and fractures (following the presence of a time period of blood flow in a comparatively poor manner) and the latter generally resulting from actions such as repetitive exercising (more than the recommended magnitude of exercising for a healthy human being) (Von Keudell et al. 2015). The observation of the case study of Leigh Richards have made it obvious that the patient under review in this study is suffering from the acute subtype of the Compartment Syndrome, with the determination of the main features and aspects of the overall pathophysiology of the aforementioned condition being one of the major steps for completion (in order to ensure the initiation of proper treatment methods, tactics and strategies).
    The initiation of the treatment has to be on the basis of the main diagnosis of the condition in question, with the implementation of the treatment methods needing to be ensured only after a certain degree of surety, validity and accuracy has been noted in the generated diagnostic conditions of the patient in question. Indeed, the signs and symptoms of the condition have to be determined properly in order to ensure the initiation of the most effective possible treatment methods and strategies (Via et al. 2015). In the case of Leigh Richards, the main cause of the condition has been the accident that he suffered, with the injuries and long-lasting effects of the same being noticeably painful for the said patient. The deviations within the normal readings and signs of the functioning of the body need to be understood in order to gain a proper idea pertaining to the pathophysiology of the reviewed condition. The presence of a pressure gradient for the initiation of the normal rate of blood flow from the arteries to the veins is noted to be required for the smooth functioning of the body in an appropriate manner (Donaldson et al. 2014).
    Any kind of changes within the aforementioned pressure gradient can cause significant changes, deviations and abnormalities within the human body, with the onset of the main signs and symptoms of conditions such as the Compartment Syndrome being among the said abnormalities. Indeed, deviations within the pressure gradient can have catastrophic impacts on the normal functioning capabilities of the body, with a diminished pressure gradient directly leading to the drastic reduction of the flow of blood from the arteries to the veins (especially compared to the normal rate of the flow of blood). The reduction within the flow of blood from the arteries to the veins directly causes the flowing out of the excess fluid from the capillary walls to the regions such as the intercellular spaces between the cells of the soft tissues. The presence of the excess fluid within the spaces between the soft tissue cells result in the rise of the intra-compartmental pressure (as well as the advent of conditions such as oedema), with the consequences of the same being potentially detrimental to the well-being of the patient’s body (Shadgan et al. 2015).
    The presence of extra fluid within the spaces between the cells of the soft tissues also causes a certain degree of swelling within said cells. Swollen soft tissue cells ensure the further compression of the lymphatic and blood vessels, which in turn causes the inflow of an even greater amount of fluid within the intercellular spaces. The advent of an even greater amount of excess fluid within the intercellular spaces (especially in the regions containing the cells of the soft tissues) directly causes even more compression. Finally, the level of compression reaches a magnitude which causes a severe lack of oxygen in the soft tissues (which can be described as tissue ischaemia), with the end result of a lack of the necessary amount of oxygen within the said region being the increased propensity of tissue death and necrosis on an undesirable scale. The sensations of tingling and an uncomfortable sensation (owing to the presence of the abnormalities as a result of the onset of the aforementioned conditions and known as paraesthesia) are often observed in such cases, especially during the early period of the onset of Compartment Syndrome (Zafar et al. 2016). 
    The sensations such as tingling and the various other abnormal sensations of the body generally begin in a time period as early as thirty minutes from the onset of the condition of tissue ischaemia, with an immediate medical and professional intervention being necessary in such a case. Any kind of failure in the management of the condition in question from this point of time itself can have severe and catastrophic consequences for the patients in question. Lasting and permanent damage has been noted to occur in cases where appropriate management strategies have not been implemented within twelve hours post onset of the main signs of the reviewed condition. The presence and proper implementation of immediate and accurate diagnostic and treatment strategies pertaining to the management of the condition are necessary in order to prevent the onset of the worst case consequences of the same (Raza and Mahapatra, 2015). The observations pertaining to the case of Leigh Richards have appropriately highlighted the fact that he is suffering from Acute Compartment Syndrome, with surgical interventions being necessary for initiating the necessary degree of treatment for the same.        
    The accident suffered by Richards resulted in his leg being pinned under a cabin intrusion, thus, causing significant injuries in the region. The trauma suffered as a result of the procured injuries led to the onset of conditions such as the aforementioned ones, with the patient in question being accurately diagnosed as suffering from Compartment Syndrome. The presence of excess fluid in the intercellular spaces of the tissues of the injured regions of his legs has resulted in the relative lack of oxygen flow within said tissues. Indeed, signs of tissue necrosis and tingling sensations have been observed within the patient, with an immediate professional intervention being necessary for ensuring proper and long-lasting treatment.                   

    Signs and Symptoms
    The reviewed patient has been noted to have demonstrated some signs and symptoms which serve as further evidence of his suffering from Acute Compartment Syndrome. One of the main symptoms that he has displayed over the course of medical observations is a high degree of pain (which has been observed to be disproportionate to the main results of the physical tests and examinations), with his pain not being completely mitigated even upon the administration of pain medications such as analgesia (even including the administration of morphine). The main cause of this pain is due to the advent of necrosis and tissue death in affected region since the injured parts have not gained the necessary amount of oxygen (Garner et al. 2014). Another main symptom which Leigh Richards has demonstrated is the presence of paraesthesia (also known as altered sensations), with him complaining about numbness and an abnormal tingling sensation in his injured leg. 
    The main cause of these sensations is also the progressive death of the tissues of the injured region (on account of not receiving the necessary amount of oxygen due to the presence of excessive fluids in the intercellular spaces of the affected tissue regions). The onset of tissue necrosis is generally attributed to be among the main reasons for the advent of this symptom, with a lack of intervention progressively causing the symptoms to progress to the state of numbness (indicating necrosis over a considerable region of the affected body part) (Roscoe et al. 2016). The advent of the aforementioned symptoms within Leigh Richards has been the effective proof of him being a patient of Acute Compartment Syndrome, with immediate professional interventions and treatment strategies being necessary to mitigate the negative effects of the same.         
     
    Conclusion
    The determination of the main points pertaining to the pathophysiology of a diseased condition or abnormality is necessary for understanding the best way of combating the same. The signs and symptoms displayed by Leigh Richards have made it clear that he is suffering from Acute Compartment Syndrome, with an understanding regarding the same being necessary for initiating the necessary treatment measures. The determination of the pathophysiology of the condition in question helped in gaining an insight pertaining to the route of progression of the said abnormality in an appropriate manner as well. Thus, it is concluded that the determination of the pathophysiology and signs/symptoms of conditions such as Compartment Syndrome is necessary for implementing the proper treatment of patients such as Leigh Richards.