Champoux (2010, p.12) stated that the business-oriented organisation works as a machine, organism, culture, brain, political system and framework of domination. Working as machine help the organisation to generate efficiency in the maintenance of production, waste, energy remission and re-engineering (Walker, 2011, p.10). Meanwhile working as organism maintains the business adaptation, business life cycle, recycling of resources and environmental growth. British Petroleum has managed to diversify the business across 40 countries by improving the value of machinery, political cooperation, and sustainable environment. Financial and operational function of the organisation is positively influenced by the modifying their innovation and management value. Royal Dutch Shell has managed to implement moderate drilling machinery. Safety clamps and casing pipe elevators remove the nasty accident and injuries at the manufacturing unit (Shell.com. 2016).
Herzberg et al. (2011, p.13) mentioned that the increasing the use of machinery shows that the organisation has focused on doubling the productivity with shorter duration. Technology based machinery is the driving force of company to gain massive business outcome across the potential market. On the contrary, working as machine involves higher cost which can harm their future investment decision of organisation. More specifically, the cultural and legal value in the business is maintained after following the step of the political system.
O'Neil and Drillings (2012, p.12) stated that the organisation works as a political system to establish an organisational culture at the workplace. Equality and diversity are provided to every single associate of the organisation after adopting political system approach. This approach tries to make hidden agenda for leading the business industry across the national and international market. The role of top level management is higher in the political system approach. Ashkanasy and Humphrey (2011, p.215) opined that the top level manager tries to make an alliance with the lower level management. On the other hand, avoiding safety measure harms the health of lower level management that reduces the workplace proficiency at a wider scale.
Working as machine, help the British Petroleum to increase the role of machinery to enhance the productivity in an effective manner. Working as machinery, help the British Petroleum to dominate the Oil and Gas industry across international markets. Feasibility and sustainability of the business are determined by the adoption of machinery centric approach (bp.com. 2016).
The organisation modifies the business and marketing strategy to gain the perfect market position (Alvesson, 2012, p.13). The metaphors also play pivotal role in empowering the business performance of organisation across the domestic and international market. Machinery and equipment are the biggest strength of the organisation to dominate the respective business industry (Simon Nobre and Walker, 2011, p.334). More specifically, the productivity of the organisation is depending upon the feasibility of human resources and execution of equipment. For example, Chevron Corporation UK has managed to enhance the productivity along with workers safety by implementing drilled out bridge equipment, power setting tools, and pipe tongs. Power setting tool helps the company to save the power unit at the manufacturing units. On the other hand, disability in the financial resources reduces the profitability and credibility position of the company across the potential market. Somehow the top level management of the organisation tries to maintain the culture at the organisation by building effective communication with the workers (Hitt et al. 2011, p.60). Engineering technology helps the organisation to maintain the sustainability of manufacturing unit.
Linnenluecke and Griffiths (2010, p.358) opined that the top level management of organisation fermented marketing and business goals to empower the profitability and credibility. Determining business objective is essential for the organisation to force the workforces for increasing the outcome. Naranjo-Valencia et al. (2011, p.56) mentioned that the goal setting aspects is the primary approach of every financial organisation before diversifying the business across the new market. On the other hand, macro and micro environmental factor include the feasibility of business and goals of the organisation. Hoffman et al. (2011, p.780) stated that the top level management formulates a strategy on the basis of current and future market trend, the purpose of setting business goals is to create the value of business among their loyal customer. The organisation brings training and development programme to develop the skill and proficiency of the workforces on regular basis. Somehow skilled workforces are the biggest strength of the company.
Leroy et al. (20121, p.256) mentioned that the goal-setting theory is most effective and useful theory to increase the value of strategic force beyond business. The goal-setting theory focuses on improving the business effort of workforces. The leader of BP has implemented goals setting strategies to determine the role and responsibility of the every single employee of the organisation. It has helped the company to bring sudden technological business change to lead the Oil and Gas industry across the domestic and international market. Lam et al. (2010, p.55) mentioned that the strategic aspect of the organisation is all about forcing employees to become task persistence. Hoffman et al. (2011, p.780) stated that the professional behaviour is established among the lower and mid-level management after executing the value of goal setting approach. The organisation makes product centric goals to establish the value of product across the potential market. Meanwhile, customer-centric goals help the company to make a long-lasting relationship with the target customers. O'Neil and Drillings (2012, p.12) stated that the marketing and business policy of the organisation are formulated by the leader of an organisation to improve the financial performance across target market. Goal-setting behaviour is the current need of every single associate of the organisation to dominate the respective business industry. Chevron Corporation UK has targeted implementation of moderate equipment to bring efficiency in the productivity Sucker rod elevators and blowout preventers are the most prominent equipment of company to provide safety at the workplace (Chevron Policy, G. 2016).
Goal setting approach by the leader is essential for cooperating the outcome of financial and human resources in an effective way. For example, the lead forces the lower level management to achieve the business goals by setting the target. Meanwhile, target setting is the business need of company but it may create low confidence, conflict, and dissatisfaction among the workers.
Hoffman et al. (2011, p.780) stated that the increasing workload is not the ethical code of conduct for every business organisation. It forces the employees to follow the unethical way in a professional manner. After implementing the strategic goals, the organisation tries to get feedback from their employees. This process helps the organisation to identify the strength and weakness areas beyond business. Overall, the goals setting perspective of the organisation is all about setting benchmarks in their respective business industry along with increasing the value of workforces.
O'Neil and Drillings (2012, p.12) stated that the organisation tries to increase the profitability along with improving the skill of employees. Training and development programme based on the technological value is the best way to access the management and technical skill of the workers. The organisation tries to remove the threat of market and environmental risk beyond business by providing a professional training programme.
On the other hand, every organisation faces unethical practices at the workplace. Dissatisfaction and low confidence among the employees are generated by poor strategic policy and inappropriate leadership. Lam et al. (2010, p.55) mentioned that it is the responsibility of the leader of the organisation and team to remove the conflict and dissatisfaction of employee to make a better workplace. Workplace productivity is massively harmed by the dissatisfaction and low confidence behaviour of employees on regular basis. For example, biased performance appraisal program created dissatisfaction and conflict among the lower level management at the workplace.
It has been found that lack of cultural and legal value harms the productivity of the organisation. It is the responsibility of the top-level management to maintain the legal value at the workplace to establish the organisational culture. Discrimination and inequality at the workplace harm the productivity of the organization (Hoffman et al. 2011, p.780). Therefore confidence and dissatisfaction among the workers raise in massive scale which is a negative aspect of the every business oriented organization.
Linnenluecke and Griffiths (2010, p.358) opined that the lack of appropriate salary structure reduces the motivational value of the workers. A financial and nonfinancial reward of the organisation decides the confidence and satisfaction of the workforces. On the other hand, bias promotion and financial reward system of the organisation creates the conflict and unethical practices at the workplace. Lack of cooperation and communication by the team leader generates low confidence among the team member. As a consequence, business performance of organisation and team member is affected. It has found that in Oil and Gas company workers face nasty injuries and accidents. Lack of safety and health measure also damages the confidence level and professional performance of the workers on the regular basis.
Performance appraisal system of the Royal Dutch Shell forces the employees to take extra work pressure which can cause their mental and physical health (Shell.com. 2016).
The top level management always tries to achieve the predetermined business goals to lead the respective business industry across the national and international market. O'Neil and Drillings (2012, p.12) stated that the providing additional responsibility and accountability creates dissatisfaction and low confidence among most of the workers. Linnenluecke and Griffiths (2010, p.358) opined that the inappropriate working hours has become the negative aspects of the corporate sector, as a result, employees are not able to work properly. It shows that lack of proper leadership and flexibility in the British Petroleum harms the professional performance of the employees.
Maslow’s need of Hierarchy theory:
British Petroleum has followed Maslow's need hierarchy theory to motivate the workforces. Maslow’s motivational theory forces the organization to fulfil the financial and nonfinancial need of the employees. Lam et al. (2010, p.55) mentioned that the self-actualization is the first need of Maslow's theory in every business organization. This theory forces the British Petroleum to provide training and innovative values among the workers to increase their motivation value. The esteem need is the professional requirement of workers to get high status, recognition, and responsibility. Fulfilling esteem need of the workers helps the organization to improve the performance of workers. Lam et al. (2010, p.55) mentioned that the leader of organization tries to identify the belongingness need of the employees. The belongingness need of the employees is cooperation with the team members, team leaders, customers, and subordinates. Royal Dutch Shell is leading oil and Gas Company across global market due to having a highly skilled workforce. Linnenluecke and Griffiths (2010, p.358) opined that the fulfilling belongingness need helps the organization to create genuine workplace culture. Meanwhile, safety need is the most common need of the every single worker of the organization. Safety needs of employees pertain with job security, work safety, and health safety. Production supervisor focuses on providing a training programme to the workers for ensuring workplace safety. The organization provides first aid facility to the workers as a remedy measures. The organisation follows legislative act to provide equality and diversity at the workplace. This process helps the organization to increase the work satisfaction of the workers across national and international manufacturing units. Linnenluecke and Griffiths (2010, p.358) opined that the final need of the every lower management is a psychological need. Better food, better air, and better salary are the physiological need of the workers. Inappropriate salary structure and poor workplace environment affect the performance of the lower level management.
Overall it is the responsibility of the top leader of the organization to fulfil the safety and other need of the workers to ensure the business progress across the domestic and international market. Lam et al. (2010, p.55) mentioned that the Maslow's need hierarchy theory is the best way to improve the motivational value and professional skill, of the workers. It also helps the organization to make a long lasting relationship with the employees which can help the business to grow across new region effectively. It has found that loyalty of the customer helps the organization to gain perfect market position in an appropriate way. Job satisfaction of the employee is determined by the implementation of Maslow's need hierarchy theory.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory:
The second motivational theory used by the British Petroleum is Cognitive evaluation theory. This motivational theory provides competitive advantage across the domestic and international market in a prominent manner. Intrinsic and extrinsic value is the achieved after implementing guidelines of Cognitive evaluation theory. The leader of British Petroleum tries to fulfil the intrinsic need of the lower level management. Lam et al. (2010, p.55) mentioned that the intrinsic need includes achievement, motivation, interest in the work and achievement of responsibility. Every lower level management tries to take promotion by improving the performance. Taking responsibility for the task helps the employees to improve their professional status and recognition in the organization. Meanwhile, extrinsic value includes promotion, working atmosphere and pay cycle. Linnenluecke and Griffiths (2010, p.358) opined that the cognitive evaluation theory is applicable to the lower division workers in every business industry. Overall, the British Petroleum tries to create job satisfaction among the workers to ensure the financial growth across the potential market. Need and wants of the worker is fulfilled by the top level manager by implementing guidelines of motivational theory. On the other hand, inappropriate promotion, and financial reward system of the organization massively generate distrust among the worker which can hamper the current business performance of the British Petroleum. Lam et al. (2010, p.55) mentioned that the cognitive evaluation theory is the biggest sources for the organization to generate job satisfaction and motivational value among the workers. More specifically, the leader of the organisation tries to bring management and motivational value among the workers to remove the uncertain risk.
The British Petroleumtries to establish healthy communication and relation with the workers in order to generate huge financial growth. However, government's intervention reduces the feasibility of motivation and marketing strategy of the organisation. Chevron Corporation UK has focused on improving the risk bearing and technological learning of the workers by providing moderate training (Hoffman et al. 2011, p.780). The company uses experienced employees as a trainer to the new workforces for maintaining the productivity and profitability value (Chevron Policy, G. (2016).
Innovative training helps the workers to improve their personal and professional skill in an effective way. This process helped the every single employee get financial and nonfinancial recognition during the performance appraisal. O'Neil and Drillings (2012, p.12) stated that the company tries to evaluate the performance of every single employee in the last year to provide sufficient financial and promotion reward. On the other hand, lack of legal value and ethical value could massively affect the coordination among lower level management employees. The British Petroleum has been dominated the oil and gas industry across international market due to the high amount of prominent workers. Linnenluecke and Griffiths (2010, p.358) opined that the financial perks are the bests ways to generate competition among the lower level workers. This approach helped the team leader to achieve the target determined by the organization. The business objective of the organisation is depending upon the motivational value and skill of the workers (Hoffman et al. 2011, p.780). The top level management tries to bring coordination among the workers to maintain the business momentum. Maslow's need hierarchy theory and Cognitive theory has been adopted by the British Petroleum, Royal Dutch Shell and Chevron Corporation UK. The Chevron Corporation UK has implemented innovative equipment and technology for the betterment of productivity (Ence.ch. 2016).
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