The Basic knowledge of Analysing and presentation of statistical data is centered on the ability to evaluate the suitability of the charts, tables, and graphs (Gregr et al., 2019, 428-443). An appropriate presentation of data using these common means is the foundation for an easier and faster understanding of the information by the consumers of different reports such as the stakeholders, managers, or any relevant recipients of the reports. The report would evaluate the criteria for suitable charts, graphs and tables and their application in different public reports.
1. The axes, in essence, x and y for graphs and charts should be clearly labelled with a title and indexed to enable the viewer to establish the type of data or information presented in the graph at a glance.
2. The data entries in graphs, charts, and tables should have a uniform number of decimal places for the cases of numerical data.
3. The acronyms or abbreviations used in the tables, charts, or graphs should be written in full either at the top or at the bottom.
4. Appropriate use of simple scales should be used. Avoid logarithmic scales unless required to convert them by the audience.
5. The units of measurement or currencies should be indicated along the respective axis in all the tables, graphs, and charts.
6. Representation of annual data/ reports for different organizations or departments should indicate the element of time such as year and month or the year.
7. The source of the data in the table, graphs, or charts should be indicated for all the imported data or the referenced data. A source increases the credibility of the presentation and analysis.
8. The data should be arranged logically. A logical arrangement of information showing the natural occurrence like the years gives the reader an impressive flow of information for easier analysis and interpretation.
9. The use of legend should be used in charts and graphs to explain the data being illustrated. Legends enable easier understanding of the meaning of data
10. The line charts and bar graphs should use a common baseline if they have multiple variables. The same baseline enables an easier comparison of the data being presented or analyzed.
11. Line graphs with various variables should be marked using different types of trend lines for easier identification and comparison purposes.
12. The bar graphs representing trends for multiple variables should be labelled along each variable.
13. Line charts should be used to represent time series data with the measure on the y-axis whereas the time on the x-axis.
14. Portions of the pie charts should be labelled with the percentage indicated for each division.
15. Grouped bar graphs should be made to a common scale or proportion such as the percentage for all the groups.
16. Bar graphs and line charts should be used for representing data entailing several dependent variables against one independent variable
17. The rows and columns in the table should be labelled concisely and accurately. Accurate data labelling is crucial if the audience wants to interpret the data correctly.
18. The data in the table should be simplified as much as possible such as rounded off to whole numbers or significant uniform figures.
19. Grid lines should be used to separate different rows or columns. Grids enable faster tracing of an element of data with ease.
20. Tables should be used to represent quantitative data with a qualitative illustration across the first column to the left or at the first row at the top.
The evaluation of the charts, graphs, and tables were performed in line with the criteria established in part A in different sections as illustrated in the subsequent sections below.
In the line chart presented, it can be observed that the multiple variables are indicated using different types of trend lines as the fulfilment of criterion 11 in part A. the axes are labelled as well as the title as mentioned in criteria 1. From the graph, the reader can easily trace the trend lines at a glance for instant judgment of the data thus indicating that the visual presentation was achieved effectively (Hopcroft, 2019). Additionally, the age along the x-axis was presented logically from the youngest to the oldest following criteria 8 under the common criteria for charts, graphs, and tables.
From the table, it can be observed that some criteria mentioned in section A have been fulfilled. To begin with, the table has been given a title, and the index is indicating the number of the table in the document as per criteria 1. Indexing enables the reader to locate the table using the minimal time to navigate through the annual report (Berinato, 2019). Additionally, the year the data was compiled into the table has been indicated as the requirement of criteria 6, which gives the reader a sense of time when evaluating the information in the table. Furthermore, the table has also observed criteria 18 that emphasizes the use of uniform significant figures across all the data elements that make the work free from visual disparities. The legend discussed under criteria 9 is also evidenced in the table where the researcher has described the meaning of the column titles represented by the numeric values. The data entries also fulfil criteria 2 due to the same number of decimal process across the entire table.
In the table, it can be observed that the title is given according to the requirements of criteria 1 as well as an index indicating “Table 2.” Moreover, the information is arranged logically in terms of the years from the earliest to the most recent as per criteria 8 from the graphs and charts section in part A. Another primary evaluation criterion is the use of quantitative data in the subsequent columns whereby the first column entails the qualitative data that helps in defining the numeric data in the table as illustrated in criteria 20 in the tables section. Moreover, the rows and columns are labelled as per criteria 17. The presence these attributes makes the analysed information in the table simple to understand within a glimpse of time as well as easy to understand (Berinato and Duarte, 2017).
The information in the pie chart represents the percentage of the respective portions of the question on notification, which enables the audience to identify the least, and the most portion. The use of percentages in pie charts satisfies criterion 14 under the graphs and charts section in part A. Additionally, the chart is titled thus making it easier for the reader to identify the concerning topic being represented. Indicating titles is the criterion 1 found in the common section of part A that emphases the need for a title as a basic requirement in data presentation and analysis acknowledged by Taylor and Bonsall (2017).
From the graph, it can be depicted that the axes have been labelled, the title is written beneath the graph, and indexed according to the requirements of criteria 1. Furthermore, the legend has been inserted to indicate the various groups as required in criteria 9. All the variables share a common baseline that enables faster comparison among the groups as asserted in criteria 10 in the graphs and charts section in part A. Many scholars advocate a common baseline in presenting data using bar graphs as it gives a sense of data comparison and professionalism in data analysis and presentation (Healy, 2018). The source is also added as per criteria 7.
The line graph in the figure time series data where the time is indicated on the x-axis whereas the measurement variable on the y-axis as a fulfilment of criteria 13. Moreover, the line graph has a common baseline that begins at zero on the y-axis thus satisfying the requirements of criteria 10 in the graphs and charts section of part A of the assignment. Another essential observation is that the axes have been well labelled indicating the respective variables represented along the x-axis and y-axis. Additionally, the graph is titled whereby the title is put below the graph thus satisfying the requirements of criteria 1. Furthermore, the legend has been inserted to indicate the various groups as required by criteria 9.
grouped bar graph is indexed and title below the graph thus fulfilling the requirements mentioned in evaluation criteria 1. The legend defining the groups of variables has been included in the graph thus highlighting criteria 9. Concisely, the various bars representing different data variables have been labelled independently according to the requirements of criteria 12. It can also be observed that the bars share a common baseline thus making comparison easier for the reader and the viewer for criteria 10 whereas the scale has been reduced to a common measure, in essence, percentages thus incorporating criteria 15 reduced to a common scale of percentages.
From the table, it can be depicted that the line chart has a common baseline shown by the zero labels on the y-axis as illustrated by criteria 10. The graph also has been used to represent multiple variables entailing a single independent variable with several dependent variables as illustrated by criteria 10 and 16 respectively. Additionally, the graph is a time series where the time is indicated on the x-axis while the measured variable on the y-axis as per criteria 13. Moreover, different trend lines based on colour have been used for easier tracing and tracking the trends in a given variable as well as the use of the legend that defines the trend lines thus adding insights to the information presented in the graph. These conditions are the fulfilment of criteria 11 and 9 as illustrated in part A of the assignment.
The graph is observed to have a common baseline with a simple scale as per criteria 10 and 4 respectively. The title is also given with an index to the table in accordance to criteria 1 as well as the inclusion of the year in the title which gives the sense of time to the information presented as a required by criteria 6.
From the tables, the grid lines are used to help the reader separate different columns when reading to avoid confusion as stated in criteria 19. The table has a title whereby the year is also indicated as a fulfilment of criteria 1 and 6. The data is arranged logically based on the alphabetical order as a recommendation described in criteria 8. The columns are also labelled as an identity to the variables per criteria 17. Moreover, the presence of grid lines enables the reader to analyse and interpret the data effectively according to criteria 19.
Berinato, S. and Duarte, N., 2017. Good Charts for Persuasive Presentations: How to Use the Best Data Visualizations for Great Presentations (2 Books).
Brighton: Harvard Business Press. Berinato, S., 2019. The Harvard Business Review Good Charts Collection: Tips, Tools, and Exercises for Creating Powerful Data Visualizations. Brighton: Harvard Business Press.
Gregr, E.J., Palacios, D.M., Thompson, A. and Chan, K.M., 2019. Why less complexity produces better forecasts: an independent data evaluation of kelp habitat models. Ecography, 42(3), pp.428-443.
Healy, K., 2018. Data Visualization: A Practical Introduction. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Hopcroft, F., 2019. Presenting Technical Data to a Non-Technical Audience. New York: Momentum Press.
Taylor, M.A. and Bonsall, P.W., 2017. Understanding traffic systems: data analysis and presentation. London: Routledge.
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