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    Methodological Approaches Service Assignment Help

    Methodological Approaches Service Assignment Help

    Methodological Approaches and Service Case Study


    In the digital age due to the inception of VOD (Video on Demand) platforms, going to the cinemas is perceived as an outdated way of watching films. Van de Vijver (2017) claims that cinema-going is not only shaped by the screen content but also other associated factors that play a key role in attracting the audience to the cinemas. This paper is aiming to identify an effective methodological approach that can be used to design a user-centric entertainment service in order to enhance the experience of the cinema-going audience.

     Core Concept of User-Centred Design

    User-centred design is an iterative procedure where the designers focus on their users as well as their requirements during each phase of service or product design in order to develop highly usable and accessible products for the target audience or customers (Still and Crane, 2017). Garcia et al. (2017 pp.5860) state that usability is the key aspect of user-centred designing because effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of the end-users or customers are the goals which ensure retention of existing users or customers. Garcia et al. (2017 pp.5860) further stated that the user-centred design model or cycle can be segmented into four key phases based on the activities undertaken and these four phases are: 

    Specification of context use to identify the target market segments who will use the product or service being designed

    Specification of requirements in order to identify the user or customer goals which the product or service will be required to meet

    Creation of design solutions for the development of rough concept pertaining to the design aesthetics or strategy

    Evaluation of the design in order to determine the usability of the designed product or services

    On the other hand, Lyon and Koerner (2016 pp.5) argued that user-centred design should act as the base of any new service or product design project because it provides the designers with an explicit understanding of the customers' or users' requirements, user case scenario or environment as well as their perceptions. Hence, based on the existing academic arguments it can be observed that the aim of the user-centred designing process is to capture as well as addressing the user experience. Lyon and Koerner (2016 pp.17) also claim that while pursuing a user-centred design model, the evaluation of design principles also grants the experts to garner the key market intelligence in terms of market trends or user preferences, thus allowing the effective creation of value proposition as well.

    1.2 Methodological Approaches in Service Design

    Persuasion and implementation of a user-centred service design is a methodological process that is a fundamental requirement in order to improve the quality of the designing process as well as the quality of the final product or service. According to Garcia et al. (2017 pp,5859), agile development has gained mainstream preference in service designing and development processes as the integration of both agile methodology and user-centred design is essential for quality enhancements. According to Batra et al. (2017 pp.431), agile is a method that allows collaborative interactions in order to ensure iterative delivery, therefore agile can be perceived to be a flexible design principle or process. Therefore, with the user-centred design being an iterative process, the agile method can be utilised to approach a user-centred service design. Garcia et al. (2017 pp,5865) based on the evidence from their study claimed that artefacts play a key role in the agile user-centred designing process as artefacts such as user persona, use case, prototype design among others drives the blueprint designing process. As a result, the agile methodology approach can be an excellent approach while user-centred service design is being pursued.

    Similar to the agile method, PRINCE2 (PRoject IN a Controlled Environment) is another widely followed method in service designing projects. According to Thompson (2019 pp.250), PRINCE2 provides the experts with the immensely useful tool while they are approaching and focusing to understand the requirements of the projects. PRINCE2 is a viable and effective method in the constant or stable project environment and enables the continuous and iterative cycle of incremental improvements. This method as a result can be integrated within the service design process that following the user-centred design and enables the design thinking process to improve the designing process as well (Thompson, 2019 pp.250). Thompson (2019 pp.249) suggests the integration of prototyping artefact within the PRINCE2 methodology based on the identification of customer journey. Because within the user-centred design process determination of user or customer requirements and demands is important because it enables the product or service designers to assume the design attributes or functionality implementation based on the awareness. Therefore, the PRINCE2 method can be viable for user-centred design projects because of the predictable and stable nature of the requirements of such design projects. Furthermore, PRINCE2 is also viable for complex and large-scale project designs due to the clear mentioning of the roles and responsibilities as well as the determination of associated risks as well (Mikkelsen, 2020). As a result, similar to the agile methodology, PRINCE2 can also be observed to be a viable and effective methodology for user-centred design projects in order to actively pursue the enhanced user experience offerings.

    Double Diamond Model is another design-specific model which is used by the system designers while they are pursuing creative processes. This model includes four key stages and they are: discover, define develop and deliver, together these stages act as a map for the designers which helps with the organisation of thoughts and improvement of creative process (Irbīte and Strode, 2016). Zhang et al. (2019) states that in the Discover stage the designers involve themselves to identify the problems they are aiming to resolute through their new design in order to produce value proposition, while Define stage is where they synthesize the information they have gathered during the previous stage. The third stage is Develop, and during this stage the designers ideates through brainstorming and produces prototypes as they aim to resolve the problem. During the Deliver stage, through rapid prototyping of solutions the best solution is selected and the newly designed system is developed in order to address the problems or issues identified in the first stage of this model (Zhang et al. 2019). Therefore, this methodology requires understanding the people and tweaking the ideas to meet the requirements of the people.

    Apart from the agile, double diamond model and PRINCE2 methodologies, the waterfall can be another effective design project planning method as well. In the words of Banica et al. (2017 pp.45), the waterfall methodology aims to simplify the project management process with solid planning rather than incremental and iterative planning and delivery. As a result, in the waterfall methodology-based projects there is little scope for reflection, revision and adaptation because a pre-planned approach is undertaken in this methodology. According to Luodemäki et al. (2020 pp.44), the waterfall approach can be deployed in projects which requires a retrospective view while designing the user experience and value propositions for the target users. Luodemäki et al. (2020 pp.21) also argued that waterfall methodology follows a downward flowing design phase and which is a linear model because the method relies on pre-planned models. However, Luodemäki et al. (2020 pp.21) argue that such a method contradicts the service design principles because this methodology lacks adaptiveness and continuous iterations throughout the design process. Therefore, despite the scope for sequential and simplified service designing through the waterfall method, the lack of alignment with the service design principle, as a result, identifies contradicting approach as well.

    1.3 Critical Analysis of Various Methodological Approaches

    Critical analysis of agile methodology demonstrates both pros as well as cons. According to Layton et al. (2020), agile methodology highlights the flexibility, scope for continuous interactions and quality assurance as well as customer satisfaction scope. These outcomes as a result identify the pros or positive outcomes deriving from the implementation of agile design project management methodology. In the previous discussion, it was already identified from the argument of Batra et al. (2017 pp.431) that the agile method offers high flexibility. Therefore, the implementation of the agile method within a user-centred design project allows the designers to adapt the design project and tailor their design according to the requirements of the users. However, despite the pros, there are cons for the agile method as well, as due to the requirement for continuous interactions the problem with workflow coordination sometimes becomes apparent (Layton et al. 2020). Furthermore, due to the emphasis on flexibility, the lack of long-term planning also can be highlighted as an adverse characteristic as well.

    Double Diamond model methodology enables the understanding of the people and tweaking the ideas to meet the requirements of the people. Therefore, in this model the integration of research, synthesis, ideation and implementation can be observed as the entire model aims to design which addresses the requirements or demands of the people. As a result, it can be argued that the double diamond model helps with the creation of value proposition as the goal is to minimise or mitigate the pain areas while offering satisfaction for the target people or audiences.

     methodology also possesses both pros and cons as well. In the words of Masciadra (2017),  is one of the widely used methods because of the strengths such as project assurance which ensures the independent health checking of projects as this method focuses on guidance rather than monitoring or auditing of progress. Furthermore, the pivotal focus of this methodology on the project goals also identifies this method as an effective project management methodology. However, despite the pros, there are limitations as well. Masciadra (2017) claims that the PRINCE2 method explicitly focuses on the attainment of goals and ignores the people management aspects. Therefore, integration of this method in user-centred design projects does not cover the management of designers or other stakeholders and which as a result can be a limiting factor for such design project management.

    Similar to agile and PRINCE2, the waterfall method also has pros and cons as well. In terms of pros or advantages, the simplistic project management approach of this method can be identified and which as a result makes this method well suited for small scale design project as well. Furthermore, the coordination scope among the project stakeholders and focus towards proactive quality assurance also can be identified as the pros for this method as well. Though, contrastingly this method also has disadvantages or cons as this methodology lacks flexibility and which as a result highlights the lack of adaptiveness for this method as well. Therefore, it can be perceived that lack of adaptiveness can jeopardise complex projects due to the requirements for dynamic process handling. Based on this critical discussion a result both pros and cons for the methods can be perceived.

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