MENTAL HEALTH (DEMENTIA)
Mental health is denoted as the level of psychological well-being or on the other hand, it is regarded as the absence of mental illness. Mental health includes the subjective well being, autonomy, intergenerational dependence as well as self-actualisation of one's emotional potentiality. The mental problem can be caused because of various reasons such as loneliness, discrimination, abuse and so on. There are various types of mental health diseases such as bipolar disorder, anxiety and much more. In this study, it focuses on the mental health diseases of dementia. Moreover, there is a brief overview of dementia along with that a discussion regarding the people experiences from dementia. In addition to that, some of the ways are shown which are helpful for increasing awareness among the people regarding dementia. There is discussion as well regarding dementia becoming a global health issue. In addition to that, there is the epidemiology of dementia is also being discussed.
Overview of Dementia and people experience from dementia
Dementia is denoted as the loss of mental skills which is directly affecting the daily life. Dementia can create a trouble in a person’s memory as well as it can affect in making any plan for the future aspect. In the opinion of Coyne et al. (2015), dementia can get worse as the time passes by. Moreover, there are some people those stay same but some people losses their skills by getting affected with dementia. Dementia mainly occurs in the older stage but it is not necessary that every older person will get affected by dementia. Dementia is mainly caused because of a change in brain or damage in the brain. In addition to that, there are various things that can cause dementia such as the Alzheimer disease, head injuries and Parkinson's disease. Moreover, in some of the people, depression can cause a memory loss which seems like to have dementia. Dementia is mainly denoted as the syndrome which is resulted from the acquired brain diseases as well as it is characterised with some of the progressive deterioration in the memory or any other cognitive domains.
The cognitive decline which is associated with dementia can directly affect an individual's ability in terms of producing any kind of linguistic information. Moreover, there can be some behavioural problems in an individual by getting affected by dementia. As per the view of Fortinash & Worret (2014), there are some of the other reasons that occur dementia because of the progressive change in the fractions of brain. The symptoms of dementia vary based on the various stages. Moreover, the late stage sign of dementia, as well as symptoms, can be similar to the characteristics of the early symptoms. Some of the signs and symptoms of dementia such as being easily directed, short of memory, difficulty in terms of planning anything and so on. Dementia can be treated by providing extra care and support to the individuals and helping them in their day to day activities.
There is need to understand the healthcare experience of people those are facing the problem of dementia along with that the caregiver's nowadays is increasing as well. The healthcare experience in terms of people those are facing the problem of dementia as well as their caregivers are dynamic and a complex process. In the opinion of Garand et al. (2014), people experience with dementia is mainly supported by a healthcare practitioner. Most of the time people are facing dementia, sometimes because of dead brain cell for example stroke. In the other hand, an injury can also be a reason of dementia that is faced by a person. A person is affected with dementia can have the problem of memory loss as well as the creative problem while communicating with others. A person also loses the ability to focuses and pay attention to any important things. People face a lot of difficulties to conduct their day to day activity because of dementia. In addition to that, in any kind of social gathering people facing the problem of dementia get a problem to communicate with others.
Epidemiology of dementia and dementia as global health issue
Dementia is denoted as a global epidemic which is caused as well as recorded in the world's richest along with that in the world's most of the countries. In addition to that, 63% of people living with dementia are mainly found in the low as well as middle-income countries. Moreover, dementia epidemic is blunted through the process of improvement in the individual health. Dementia is affecting 6% of individuals those are over the age of 65 as the dependent prevalence. In the year 2015, a number of people living with dementia were around 47.47 million that is estimated to reach around 75.63 million in the year 2030. In the view of Giedd et al. (2015), the incidence in terms of dementia is increasing exponentially with the increase of the age which is mainly based on the estimates of the global incidence of dementia. Moreover, dementia is denoted as the syndrome which is characterised with the progressive deterioration of the cognitive functions.
Epidemiology is mainly referred as the medical science which is the study of the frequency of disease. In addition to that, measures of frequency are mostly used in epidemiology through the medium of prevalence and incidence. The incidence of dementia is doubled in each and every year in terms of age that is from 3.1/1000 persons. As per the view of Gladman et al. (2015), it is found that dementia is mostly spread in the high-income countries rather than that the low-income countries. Dementia can affect the people the people those are below the age of 65. Dementia can be diagnosed with the help of physician by focusing on the symptoms. The possible control measures of dementia are to drink more raw fruits and vegetable juices as well as add some of the vitamin K to in the daily food. Moreover, there is a requirement to reduce stress from the individual as well as to exercise on a daily basis. In addition to that, there can be a use of biomarker test which is also helpful for preserving the brain functions.
In the year 2013, it is found that people living with dementia are around 44 million which will increase in number as the time passes by. Moreover, the policy brief has entitled that the global impact of dementia for the year 2013 to 2050 reports is staggered with 17% of an increase in the global estimated. As opined by Hou et al. (2014), the high-income countries such as the G8 is mostly burnt out of the dementia epidemic which is noted as the global phenomenon. Moreover, in a few decades later the global burden of the disease will automatically shift in an inexorably to low as well as in the middle-income countries it is around 71% those are living in the lower and middle-income countries in the year 2050. In addition to that, most of the government are unprepared for the epidemic dementia. On the other hand, there are only 13 countries those are implementing the national dementia plan.
In the global aspect dementia is the 7th leading reasons behind deaths of the individuals. More than 47 million of the people affected with dementia in a global aspect. Dementia is denoted as the one of the major reason behind disability as well as most of the people are dependent on the older people on the worldwide stage. As opined by Jones et al. (2017), in the worldwide sector there is lack of awareness as well as understanding in terms of dementia.
Description of approaches to the problem
In order to decrease the problem of dementia, there is a requirement of implementing some approaches. The approaches are mainly based on the policy, public health and in an anthropological way. In the policy of dementia, their main motive is to promote good health in the older people as well as support the people those are facing the problem of dementia. In the opinion of Kales, Gitlin & Lyketsos (2014), dementia is denoted as the national health priority as well as it is required to provide care and support to the people facing the dementia issues. The person-centred approach (PCA) helps the people those are facing dementia by reducing their agitation as well as aggression. Moreover, the person-centred approach makes sure that each and every member those are facing the problem of dementia is treated with immense dignity as well as respect. There are various policies those are mainly used for the people to give them equal right at the time of treatment. In addition to that, there is the policy in terms of increasing awareness as well as reducing the risk. Moreover, there is the need of timely diagnosis as providing the correct amount of support to the people those are facing the dementia problem.
Most of the time people do not clearly understand the role of anthropology which is required to play in the public health policy. Anthropologist is involved in the promotion of the public health from a long term. In Australia dementia is the leading reason behind the death of the individual. In the opinion of King et al. (2013), public health priority provides the most authoritative impact in dementia in the worldwide context. Dementia is a part of ageing as well as it has the huge cost of dementia is a challenge in the health system which deals with the increasing of prevalence. In addition to that, dementia is overwhelming for the caregivers along with that there is a requirement of a huge amount of support from the health system, financial system and social system. Most of the countries have included dementia in their public health agenda by spreading awareness among the people.
The anthropologist along with that the global health professionals have managed to improve the public health with the help of proper implementation of spreading awareness among the areas to a great extent. In the opinion of Kirk et al. (2016), anthropology in terms of public health is using the technique of victim blaming which is mainly seeing in the poor health condition of a certain amount of population. The main concern of the public health is to improve the condition of the health to a certain population. Moreover, the anthropology's potentiality in terms of informing health policy which is the actual contribution in the process of policymaking. The anthropologist in the public health sector is in need of operative work that shows the ethnographic in terms of potentiality for the development of policy for a dementia centred approach.
Evaluation of historical intervention
Dementia is the major global health problem along with that there are some absences in terms of curing the problem of dementia. In most of the countries the dementia strategy that has been properly implemented which has led towards a greater emphasis on the earlier diagnosis. In the opinion of Lavretsky et al. (2013), diagnosis of dementia is sometimes difficult by keeping in mind some of the insidious onset as well as symptoms that lead towards the normal ageing. It is found that physical exercise not only improves the physical function but it also improved the mood as well as makes the cognitive decline. Dementia is a form of Alzheimer and the vascular subtypes are the most common types of diseases that are found in the worldwide context. Accurate diagnosis of dementia is much needed in terms of prognosis as well as guiding therapy. Moreover, the potentiality of reversible dementias is more likely to be found among the younger patients. The potentiality of reversible can cause depressions or any kind of inflammatory disorder. There is a various diagnostic approach in regards to solving the problem of dementia.
In the past decades for the prevention of dementia, there is the use of physical activity to large extent. The physical activity is denoted as the most protective factor against any kind of risk which is determined. It is believed by Maguire, Rosato & O'reilly (2017), people those are physically active often shows the less cognitive decline and there becomes less risk for dementia. Moreover, people those are physically active are denoted sedentary. Dementia is mostly related to the cognitive behaviours, thus being physically active to some extent is applicable but not up to the mark. On the other hand, the physically active people can show the improved cognitive function. The physical activity also decreases the vascular risk.
Cognitive activity is mostly associated in terms of reducing the risk of developing dementia. It is found that people those are more engaged in some of the stimulating activity such as learning, playing games and so on from younger age or older age is more likely to develop dementia. In the view of Musisi & Jacobson (2015), elders those are more likely to be engaged in the cognitive activity is having the higher degree of neuropathology without exhibit any kind of symptoms of dementia. Cognitive reserve which is a concept that is arousing from the initial observation of people those are in the higher level of cognitive performance. In the recent era, the cognitive intervention has shown that it helps in the reducing of the cognitive impairments as well as slow cognitive decline. On the other hand, some of the impact of the cognitive training upon the elders in unclear but there are several trails which are underway.
People who are less socially connected is more likely to be affected with dementia. Social activity can be helpful in terms of decreasing the rate of dementia from the people. On the other hand, the relationship between the risk of dementia and low social engagement is restricted to some extent from the people those are declined with the social engagement from the mid-life to the late life. In the view of Nakanishi et al. (2015), the low social engagement is more likely a high-risk factor for the symptom of dementia. Socially active people are going to be much healthy in terms of health and be away from getting affected by dementia.
Future direction for the practitioners
The intervention against the advent of dementia can be effectively handled through effective care plan. The present care plan in practice for the help of people affected by dementia has some drawbacks. In order to achieve the future set goals which are to make the society devoid of dementia, the concerned bodies need to amend their operational process. The operational process in case of dementia refers to the care plan and the way of implementation of that particular care plan. In this respect, future practitioners can adopt few measures to design the dementia care plan in a more effective way. In this regard, several aspects which will play a key role in preventing dementia in future need to be adopted. As per Ozonoff (2015), the following futuristic directions can be placed before would be practitioners to effectively counter threats from the advent of dementia.
Taking social action
The most important futuristic activity in terms of an intervention of dementia will be to develop a plan for taking specific steps to mitigate the social roots of dementia. In this respect, the possible causes of dementia, like depression, social detachment need to be considered. In the opinion of Perkinson (2015), through a proper social action, these potential causes of dementia can be removed and thus the future practitioners will be able to reduce the incidence of dementia.
Applying person-centred care
Application of person-centred care will be proved to be an effective measure taken against the advent of dementia. As per Raglio et al. (2016), in the person-centred care the preferences of the patient are given the first priority and in this way the cognitive values of the care user get preference. Hence, through this particular care approach, the emotional requirements of the care user will be considered which is an important aspect in the care process of the dementia people.
Improve quality of care
The ultimate way of improving the care for the future patients through the future practitioners is to improve the care quality. The service quality of the care facilities will play the decisive role while countering the threats of dementia in future.
Timely diagnosis and risk reduction
One of the major ways that the future practitioners can be directed towards is a timely diagnosis of the symptoms and immediate commencement of the intervention process. As per Rogers & Pilgrim (2014), in this way, the issue cannot get the time to deep within the person and hence is easier to mitigate. On the other hand, the presence of risks in the way of intervention has to be removed. Through this, the care process might be hassle-free and patient-friendly.
Setting up research agenda
The final step which might sound less important but reflects its relevance, in the long run, is a necessity of relevant research and the implementation of the research gained knowledge and experience in the care process. As opined by Townsend (2014), the adequate research will be able to find out the loopholes in the care process and also will be beneficial to surface the recovery methods. The implementation of the research results in the care process will be efficient to set care plan for dementia people.
From the above study, it is found that mental health is a huge problem in the global context. Mental health in terms of details can be solved by making socially active and get more interaction with others. There is a requirement of improving the health condition of the problem to decrease the rate of dementia. In the global context, dementia is noted as the leading disease from which people are dying to a huge extent. Dementia is mainly caused because of damage in brain cells. Moreover, dementia can cause loss of memory as well as lower the self-esteem. In addition to that, the future direction for the partitioners there is the requirement of the timely diagnosis, improving the quality of care and setting up of the research agenda. The anthropologist also helps to get rid of the problem of dementia.
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