Job design is often denoted as the task or the work design in an organization. According to Shantz et al. (2013), the job design of a company involves major operations of the HR department and it is associated with the contents, relationships and methods of the assigned jobs for satisfying both the organizational and technological requirements. In this particular discourse, how the job design only benefits the employers and not the employees will be discussed in a detailed manner and thorough discussion. Various researches and concepts will be conferred in order to provide an in-depth view on the essay topic. Job design is significant for every organization in order to perform all of the organizational functions in the most effective and efficient manner. It is potential enough to provide detailed information for performing the tasks (Bakker and Demerouti, 2014). Job design is closely interlinked with the organizational design, structure of the competent employees, environmental adaptation, commitment and motivation of the employees, quality of working life, labour relation, and organizational productivity.
In today's competitive business world, it is next to impossible to conduct business in a smooth manner without an operative job design. Freeney and Fellenz (2013) have mentioned that the major importance of the job design is to provide the required benefits to the employers as it helps to review and monitor the job performances of the employees of the corporation. It is always important for the organization to monitor, control and evaluate the job performances of the current employees as it leads towards the completion of the assigned tasks within the scheduled period. Eventually, it leads towards the ultimate success of the company. With the help of suitable and potential job design, the higher management of the corporation motivates its existing workforce as job design possesses the capability of making the tasks more challenging and interesting. This process motivates the entire workforce of the organization to provide a higher level of job performance. Jong et al. (2015) have pointed out that the motivation job design can bring the high degree of the commitment, which eventually leads to accomplishing the organizational objectives. Simultaneously, this procedure helps to intensify the employee satisfaction and the organizational productivity in an efficient manner.
The modern business scenario and the workforce are very much dynamic; therefore, the transformations in the environmental services can have a direct influence on the organizational performances within a particular industry. However, Cullinane et al. (2013) have mentioned several factors that are potential enough to affect the job design of the company. Those factors are proper scope of the job, managerial skills, requirements of the corporation, full-time challenge of the job, individual likes and dislikes of the employees, entire controlling systems, technology, and the organizational structure. On the other hand, there are controversies related to the importance of job design for the employees of any organizations. Various researches have reflected the job design is only beneficial for the employer rather than the employees. As the job design postulates the process and contents of the performance of the tasks within the workplace. Therefore, it can be stated that it is the suitable and adequate job design that determine the organizational structure. Most of the companies of the United Kingdom follow a proper job design in order to complete the assigned tasks within the scheduled time. As opined by Bakker and Demerouti (2014), on various organizations, job design determines the organizational norms, values and culture in order to follow the desired goals of the company. On the other hand, job design clearly provides a perfect and methodical approach to provide the information and data, which are job-related. Tesco, ASDA, Walmart, the dominant player in the supermarket retail industry of the United Kingdom is aware of the necessity and significance of well-prepared job design as it possesses the potential capabilities of bringing a harmonious relationship in between the higher management and the employees of the company. Being a supermarket chain in the United Kingdom, the higher management of these mentioned companies have to select suitable job design in order to perform the tasks in the best manner. They are aware that any poorly constructed job design can create the employee grievances, huge employee turnover, conflict, in disciplinary actions and greater absenteeism. Mostly the SMEs face such issues only because of their poorly prepared job design.
Cullinane et al. (2014) have commented that the quality of the working life can be understood in between the relationship of the employees and organization and its working environment. Therefore, the strong bond can be seen in between the employees and the higher authority of Tesco, Walmart and ASDA only because of their well-prepared job design as it leads towards the further improvement in the work life, suitable design of the work schedule and constant growing future of both the employees and the organization. Job design motivates employees for achieving the organizational productivity that will help to reach the desired profit margin in the particular industry. Similarly, with the competent work performances, the organizational productivity of the companies can be upgraded. Schmitz (2013) has suggested that it is the duty and responsibility of the higher management to consider personal likes and dislikes of the employees in order to bring out their best performances. However, the higher authority of TESCO, Asda and Walmart only focusses on achieving the profit instead of considering the personal likes and dislikes of performing the tasks of individuals. Therefore, there are several instances of employee turnover and conflicts in ASDA and Tesco that clearly hampers the entire business operations of these supermarket chains in the United Kingdom and across the world. On the other hand, the conflicts among the employees also damage the current brand name of the organization. Pee and Lee (2015) have observed that job design plays an impor6tant role for improving the employee performance in order to achieve the business objectives. The performances of the employees are crucial for the ultimate success of the company. On the other hand, there should be proper procedure to monitor, evaluate and review the job performances of every employee within an organization. Job design involves what tasks are done, how and when the tasks are completed, the exact order of the completion of the job, any factors that influence the completion of the task and the tasks and the content of the organization. The contradictions prevail as some of the critics have stated that there have no benefits for the workers because of the implications of the job design. However, the employers are quite benefitted for he well-structured and well-constructed job design of the organization. It provides a perfect notion of the accomplishments to the employees and is capable of providing relevant feedbacks about their job performances, which will help to improve their performances in immense future in the future. It is important to mention here that the design of the job varies from one task to another as it is continually evolving procedure within the organization.
According to Barrick et al. (2013), even most of the multinational corporations have gone through drastic changes both in the internal and external business environment in order to provide extraordinary services to the consumer. The preferences and demands of the customer are changing with the constant changes in the business and market trends. Therefore, most of the organizations employ potential strategy makers and business planners for the required changes in the workplace. Job design has an important role to play to help the employees to make an adjustment during and after the changes in the organization. After the sudden and drastic changes, it is critical for the employees to understand the new work pattern, process and system. In that case, job design not only divides the tasks among the employees, however, clearly analyzes the values of the assigned tasks. The basic goal of adequate job design is to reduce the dissatisfaction, improve employee engagement and motivation among the employees. Tims et al. (2013) have mentioned that job design is closely associated with the job enlargement and job rotation, which can be considered as a planned and systematic procedure. Job design helps to bring out the knowledge, attitude towards the work and skills of the employees. Therefore, it is easy for the employer or the higher management to understand the efficient employee within the organization. Even it denotes those areas, which require further improvements. Even the assessing the employees reflects their caliber and potential for justifying their present position in the corporation.
Job performances can be defined as it directly concentrates on the employee productivity with the process of reviewing the entire number of the acceptable units that have been produced by the employee within an environment of manufacturing. Truss et al. (2014) have truly observed that the ultimate success of the business relies on the performances of the employees. On the other hand, Jensen et al. (2013) have criticized that without a good job design it is impossible for the employee to improve own job performances. The job performances should be improved from the lower level to the senior management. There are various criteria required for evaluating the job performances of the employees in an accurate manner. However, there are requirements of relevant information before making a perfect job design, such as the trait-based information, results-based information and behavior-based information. All of these mentioned evaluations focus on different kind of tasks itself. Various researches have identified the fact that the job design approach can create a satisfactory relationship in between the rewards and satisfaction. From the case studies of the multinational companies, it can be understood that the employees will be committed and productive at their best only if the there arrangement of providing rewards as it influences and motivates all of the employees of the organization.
Gayathiri et al. (2013) have pointed out that the employer monitors and evaluates the employees based on their job performances. It is the job design that can enhance the job performances of the employees. Job enlargement helps to make a task larger with the combination of the additional activities. Maslow’s motivational model denotes the satisfaction of the human needs, which are required for every individual. Number of tasks and task complexity can be considered as the mechanism of the job design. Every task is different in nature and demands completely different skills, knowledge and orientation. However, job design analyzes the tasks, therefore, it becomes easy for completing the tasks within the stipulated time. Job design clearly follows few steps and those are job simplification, job enlargement, job rotation and job enrichment. The jobs are broken into several portions and are divided in between the associated workers. The main focus relies on the enlargement of the assigned jobs by maximizing the responsibilities and tasks. The workers often need additional training for understanding and performing the enlarged tasks. Therefore, the training budget of the organization tends to increase, which can be considered as disadvantages. However, suitable job design can reduce this budget with proper division of the tasks among the most potential employees. As opine by Jensen et al. (2013), job enrichment includes the adequate responsibilities for the challenges, which are required for an individual to perform certain tasks in the workplace. Job enrichment is related to the nature of the assigned job, objective, its control and direction. On the other hand, job rotation suggests a unique technique where the employees are rotated from one job to another.
On the conclusion of this essay, it can be understood that although there are contradictions that job design is only helpful for the employer and not for employees are not entirely true. The major benefit obviously relies on the higher authority of the company. However, the job performances of the employees are enhanced because of well-structured job design. On the other hand, the workers are able to learn various forms of performing a task, which leads them to their professional career. Therefore, both the employer and employee can be benefitted from the adequate job design.
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