can dig deeper and give more specific guidelines for companies to deliver responses properly.
Managing brand crisis communications on social media to recover brand reputation ?
Business research in the field of crisis response strategies tend to centralize around a brand’s set of action post the time of crises, mostly whether the brand should deny, or apologize, or reimburse (Dutta and Pillutla, 2011; Puzakova et al., 2013). But their isn’t that many research shedding light on the logical period in a decision making process and a more intensive query of how a business facing scandal should send a specific response strategy. Examining the apology approach which is one of the best yielding strategies when the scandalise business activity in question is true (Raju and Rajagopal, 2008) nevertheless, authors have long debated the possibility of failure. Example, Jiugui Liquor Co made an apology for their plasticiser scandal, but customers didn’t excuse the brand stating that the brands failure to take full accountability for their action in the apology. Did them refusing to take accountability compromise the brand. Moreover Brinke and Adams (2015) found that during a time of crisis , facial reactions , vocal expressions and emotional sharing whole making an apology will reflect on the investor trust of the effected brand, for example smiling while apologising might reflect insincerity thus decreasing trust , also its important to find out whom will be the best person to take the apology public would it be the Chief executive officer or one of the transgressors (Hill and Boyd, 2015).
Context of a massage is valuable and can enhance the convincing message. The relationship between the massage sender and receiver may affect the perception of the message. having a positive relationship might increase trustworthiness of the massage example ( race , gender , age ). Based on this the massage receiver will frame and process the massage in rational or emotional manner.
Ratner, Dotsch, Wigboldus, van Knippenberg, & Amodio, 2014).
Favouritism is an applicable social psychological concept, this concept represents the frank ideology that people would favour ingroup individuals over outgroup individuals. This phenomenon has been observed in many contexts and proves to be true. (Dasgupta, McGhee, Greenwald, & Banaji, 2000)
it’s very interesting to the role of message framing (emotional vs. rational) in crisis response (Claeys and Cauberghe, 2014) [
Crisis management is the set of activities aimed at reducing the harm and to cope with the damages imposed Coombs (2014, p.5). crisis is a rick to an organization, placing potential risk, harm and losses on a business’s brand equity and shareholders (Fearn-Banks, 2010).
Authors in this space agree on the importance of synergy between the preparations and communications aspects with the essentials of science of crisis management in order to succeed in overcoming a crisis (Augustine, 2000; Luecke, 2004; Fearn-Banks, 2010; Greyser, 2009; Hegner et al., 2014).distinguishing between different types of crises and being able to acknowledge and forecast what kind of brand crises are imminent , those tools will help in starting to understand how the management of crisis works.
Fundamentals of crises management
The most frequent crisis faced in the age of fast moving information is the crisis of confidence, which grows due to the lake of balance between the brand-promise and set of values in relation to how the organization really acts in their business activities and transactions.it has been argued that in order to manage a crisis situation an organisation should be communicating not avoid giving a comment Augustine (2000); Luecke (2004); Fearn-Banks (2010); Greyser (2009); Bennett & Emrish (2016); Hegner et al., (2014). In Additionfurther finding also confirmed that,
Johar et al., (2010) argues that the evaluation of the crisis is the first step to succeed in managing a crisis, he suggests that there are three very important questions which are weather the accusations are baseless or not? , the scale of potential damage? and if the effected are customers of the brand or potential customers?. Additionally, when communicating quickness of action, consistency of the massage and openness are critical for managing the situation. Fast responses are important as well because information spreads fast and the organisation needs to control the narrative. consistency is key when trying to establish credibility (Coombs, 2014). According to ForsAndrée & Ronge (2015) lake of transparency is a crisis starter/multiplier because unexpected accusations are what leads to responses that are weak or altogether weak thus openness is a crisis reducer/solver because all relevant parties will be awaire of the organisational situation
the image restoration theory
restoring an image after a crisis is no easy task, although its one of the areas that are heavily focused on (Benoit, 1995), identifying the most likely five strategies to deal with such a situation which are denial, evasion, taking responsibility, offence reduction, wrong righting , mortification.
Denying a scandals activity contests the validity of a negative event or at least that the firm or brand at question didn’t cause it. businesses might evade their responsibility for the event. They can also reduce the degree of offensiveness by de-emphasizing resulting damages. In corrective action, the business accepts their accountability and promises helpful and possibly protective actions so that a similar situation can be avoid. The mortification approach involves the business to admit that the event happened, takes responsibility, express regret and request forgiveness (Benoit, 1995, 1997).
Despite robust support for corrective action in any business , the true efficiency and success of any response strategy rest in the type and severity of a crisis. Regarding performance based crisis the corrective strategy has been giving the best yields , but regarding value based crisis such strategy has not been as successful as the reduction in offensiveness strategy (Dutta and Pullig, 2011).
Apologies can be employed by businesses that are taking accountability for a certain activity and seeking forgiveness and trust. Apologies are defined a massage of which guilt, regret and shamefulness are communicated in a forward manner for misconduct (Benoit, 1995). A recall crisis effected Toyota and (Choi and Chung, 2013) analysed the case and discovered that apologising is an effective approach for enhancing the reputation of a business during a time of crisis for Toyota’s case. But this strategy has not caused any increase in the amount of purchase intentions. A problem that crisis communications has with apologies is that its perceived as the response (Choi and Chung, 2013). After comparing the apology strategy with other comparable crisis resolution methodologies , the results conclude that individuals react similarly to any victim centric accommodating strategies (Coombs and Holladay ,2008) hypothesising that apologizing might not be most forgiving strategy after all.
Greyser (2009) reasons frankness while communicating and reliable substance based response regarding behaviour have the highest likelihood to reinstate trust and salvage the brand from crisis. The Situational Crisis Communication Theory offers a guide by bundling similar crisis response strategies to crisis types that fit best in restoring a brand’s reputation when in crisis (Greyser ,2009). Based on the situational crisis communication theory perspective, crisis is made out of four components, the components can evaluate its possible danger (risk) to a business’s image: type of crisis, scale of damage , history of business (goodwill) and relationship history. The theory also proposes the same number of strategies to respond in post-crisis communication situations which are denying, diminishing , rebuilding and reinforcing (Coombs, 2007, 2011).the denying approach involves not recognizing the crisis and its outcomes and claiming non accountability for the business. The Diminishing approach is based on building an argument that a situation is not as serious as the public is treating it and being minimalistic responsible . the rebuilding approach seeks to provide a compensation or a public apology and last but not least the reinforcing approach which revolves around shinning a light around the positive achievements of a business to strengthen their position from an ethical perspective and build basis for a ‘deserved’ sympathy and forgiveness (Coombs and Holladay, 2008, 2009). A manager should pick the approach that fits their brands narrative and their target audiences plates to provide the maximum level of protection for this valuable asset.
Claeys et al. (2010) offers evidence that show that avoidable crises can have the most damaging effects on a brands reputation . rebuild strategy lead to very good reputational restructuring and recovery.
Crisis communication in social media Modern public relations practice, and crisis communications in particular, is being tested by the rise of social media (Freberg, 2012).
Value evolves , the media innovates in leading a foundation of crisis communication. through analysing effects of traditional and social media strategies on the recipients’ insights of reputation and the effects on the recipients’ secondary crisis communication and reactions,
Schultz et al. (2011) found out that the choice of which media medium had more resounding effect than the message itself. This shows to be true based on three metrics which are the reputation, crisis communicating and reactions. The focal effect of media choice was when a message had a big impact at the secondary crisis communication stage. Because the general public believes internet media sources for news particularly when the news is of time relevance , uniqueness and interactive communication (Seltzer and Mitrook, 2007; Taylor and Perry, 2005).moreover both in individual based crisis and in organizational based crisis communication style vary greatly ,as well as their perception (Freberg et al., 2013). Additionally social media’s adds another challenging layer in the quest for improving corporate reputation and brand image (Freberg et al., 2013).
Research into feedback from businesses to criticism from customers on social media outlines vulnerability when responding can transform into positive behaviour while eliminating the damage that might be caused to the perception of the product compared to a defensive approach, result is facilitated by having appropriateness of the response (Xia, 2013).
analyse crisis communication is social media :
Jin and Liu (2010) proposed a new conceptual framework – the blog-mediated crisis communication (BMCC) model which assists PR in circumnavigate the developing blogger landscape. After using and developing the model in the American red cross social media the team updated the model into the SMCC model also know as social-mediated crisis communication (Liu et al., 2012), unravelling the relationship between the source and the form of crisis information and response outcomes with which a socially mediated crisis strategy is available.it is very critical to balance a strategy’s form and source while responding to a brand crisis Liu et al. (2011).emotional aspect of crisis is unified also in the SMCC model which are similar to the SCCT model by coombs in 2011. , Freberg et al. (2013) provides a more in-depth analysis of social media messages providing many qualitative and quantitative value modelling methods and calculated a baseline model for what constitutes a “good” crisis message. Romenti et al. (2014) argues that circumstantial and systematic elements may help managers to contemplate dialogue instead of substitute communication approach for crisis resolution.
Analysis of online postings
When implementing a strategy content monitoring and corrective action are required to maximize success. Online posts, social media hashtags, blogs and news sites are valuable sources for analysing the scale of success , and in revealing direct and indirect links with the crisis and its accountability, apology ,emotions and reputation. (e.g. Choi and Lin, 2009; Kim and Lee, 2010; Coombs and Holladay, 2010). Such posts allow managers access to real time feedback (Coombs and Holladay, 2010). this data would be beneficial for making adjustments to the strategy adopted and for future planning and preparedness
Schwarz (2012) carried out a quantitative based study of two internet forums, and analysed that user comments published in the starting crisis phase. Even with a low representativeness of the posts and a limited schedules, this case makes a great example of how useful social media monitoring can be. Schwarz (2012) argues that by applying this approach involved businesses can comprehend the public’s reaction, crisis perception and accountability. Advanced sampling methods and an increased data collection scope should lead to the testing of more available theories in the art of communicating at times of crisis.
Byrd (2012) used Kelly’s (2001) stewardship model using qualitative means to analyse Toyota’s official Facebook page regarding the recall-related crisis. Discovering that their team was operating like administrators for their (SNS) to connect with fans and other stakeholders formulating a more engaging effort which highly values two way communications, and customer driven atmosphere , helping in thrusting Toyota out of crisis with their brand image and reputation whole.
Basically, social media tools are popularly used by social media marketing as an extension for the complement of the traditional marketing. As defined by Guunelius (2010), social media marketing is known as any indirect or direct form of marketing that is utilized for the development of recall, recognition, awareness, and the action specific to a brand, product, person, business, or related entity and is performed with the use of social web tools, like micro-blogging, social web, social networking, content sharing, social bookmarking, and blogging. It is known as the new paradigm in many marketing, which has been able to provide large space for the majority of business organizations for the maintenance of a successfully, value-added, and long-lasting relationship with their entire customers. It brings connection between an enterprise and potential and current customers, solidify a sense of community, and engage directly with them around the services and product of the business organization (Mangold & Faulgd, 2009). With the help of social media marketing, customers’ attention and traffic have been captured by marketers to their organization, their businesses have been exposed and substantial amount of cost has been cut, which they could have been spent oon related marketing types and other communication tools around (jRafiee & Sarabdeen, 2013).
According to Safko and Brake (2009), those who assemble online for knowledge, opinions, and information sharing with the use of conversational social media, remain the best tools for good communication, these are those using the Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences from rem Eren Erdo mu & Mesut Cicek (2012) and also use the Web 2.0 Attributes. This implies that they engage in collaborative, participatory, fully endowed with the user-empowering and knowledge sharing tools that can be accessible from the Web. Social media marketing, as a viable use of resources and time provide organizations with better communication grounds alongside the consumers to create brand loyalty far away from traditional strategies as indicated by Jackson, 2011 in Akhtar, 2011. Furthermore, Info-graphics developed a study that posit that half of the users of Facebook and Twitter, at least say they have turned out to be very probable to consider, acquire, or recommend the products of an organization after they started engaging on social media with the organization (Jackson, 2011). Furthermore, businesses have the capacity to promote services and products, offer immediate support, and possibly develop an online community to accommodate brand enthusiasts via all social media forms like content communities, blogs, virtual worlds, social networking sites, forums, news sites, online gaming sites, microblogging sites, social bookmarking, etc. (Zarella; Weinberg, 2009). In addition, social media helps consumers in information sharing together with their colleagues regarding the service and product brands (Mangold and Foulds, 2009). The discussion between the peers offer organization another way to achieve cost effective solution to help promote brand awareness, increase brand recognition, while also increasing and recalling brand loyalty altogether (Gunelius, 2011). Therefore, it is possible to say that social media assists organization in building their brand loyalty with the help of conversation, community building, and networking (McKee, 2010). Moreover, social media marketing is totally different from conventional marketing methods; in this manner, strategic building and special attention are needed to successfully achieve brand loyalty and brand image. Also, social media marketing is associated with the consumers (Gordhamer, 2009) – the entire objectives of every organization in an exceptionally short time period (Coon, 2010). Moreover, social media marketing is additionally sincere in the communication it provides with the consumers, attempting to what is made of the brand instead of attempting to have it controlled and available in all channels of social media communication like Forums, Blogs, Twitter, and Facebook (Gordhamer, 2009). A strong strategy of social media is essential in remaining competitive in the fast advancing business landscape of today. Organizations have to even employ experts of social media and even consultants to ascertain the characteristics and content of their activities and offers in the social media environments in order for the customers’ minds and hearts can be captured and also achieve brand loyalty (Coon, 2010). Based on this notion, this paper aims to illuminate on the perspective of consumer on the effects of social media on brand loyalty in order to draw implications for organization to be capable of composing viable social media marketing operations for their brands. According to a research conducted by eMarketer, consumers make use of social media sites to remain up to date with particular products and promotional campaigns of a brand (Mangold & Foulds, 2009). For instance, Coca-Cola and Pepsi both make use of programs relative to online customer loyalty to have customers engaged through the provision of special promotions without any charge (Mangold & Foultds, 2009). In addition, customers see social media sites as a particular service channel, in which they can engage especially on real-time bases alongside the businesses (Leggat, 2010). In any case, most consumers would like to see contents that are up-to-date on social media. In this manner, Google has made changes to its search system’s algorithm to help customers first see updated content (Friedman, 2011). Also, customers that are exposed to very many brand messages on different social media platforms have to filter out the irrelevant content to them (Brito, 2011). Thus, making provision for pertinent and up-to-date content is a really vital strategy to ensure a brand is managed successfully on social media. Another essential reason to engage customers is a particular social media platform’s level of popularity, including the content that moves among friends, this engages customers with brands present on the social media. Since too many social media platforms exist and it is difficult to be a part of the 1356 rem Eren Erdo mu including the Mesut Cicek / Procedia – The Social and Behavioral Sciences 58 (2012) [1353 – 1360], it is important for marketers to analyze their major target audience, while also deciding to be a part of the most effective platforms for communication with them. Additionally, offering mobile applications enable customers to engage directly with the brand daily and brand loyalty is created (Kim & Adler, 2011).
Therefore, User-Generated Content, represented as UGC is developed, shared, and used by users and thus, is frequently viewed as credible and reliable; it is capable of influencing the purchase behavior and attitudes of the consumers (Mudambi & Schuff, 2010). Furthermore, UGC assists users in educating one another concerning events, issues, services, products, etc. There has been transformation of the one to many conventional marketing to the popular many to many marketing. Moreover, consumers tend to trust information developed by other consumers like them over advertisement or marketers’ created information (Cheong & Morrison, 2008).
As defined by Patterson et al. (2006), it is a term for the level of the physical, emotional, and cognitive presence of customer in their relationship with a particular service organization. According to Mollen & Wilson (2010), consumer engagement is the affective and cognitive commitment directed towards an active relationship alongside the brand as the website or related computer-mediated entities personified and designed for the communication of brand value. Furthermore, consumer engagement is considered as a strategic component that helps in forming and maintaining a competitive advantage, enabling them towards a foresight in future business development directions (Zailskaite et al., 2012). Meanwhile, Firm-Generated Content (FGC) is just the material that appears in either audio, video, pictures, or text form, which is generated by an organization and then shared globally wih the help of the social media networks or community. As a matter of fact, FGC operates synergistically with related conventional marketing media, such as email, TV, radio, and more (Kumar et al. 2016). Additionally, FGC is certainly aimed at the management of brands and fostering of customer relationships as indicated by Gensler et al., 2013).
Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) is known as the exchange of ideas, perceptions, and information through various online media. There is a higher reported impact eWOM has on brand choice compared to personal search or advertising (East et al., 2005). Recently, social media platforms and online social networks have been able to assist in eWOM spread on the ground of the mixture of unprecedented scale, special online interaction properties, and the probability of controlling and monitoring the activities of eWOM (Dellarocas, 2003). According to a report from Kumar et al., (2013) more than 80 percent of consumers globally across the geodemographic obstructions that are actively impacting purchase decisions and preferences through eWOM, online social networks, and social media like forums, user networks, and blogs have been able to take a highly fundamental role in the marketers’ minds. Social media marketing effectiveness with the help of eWOM is based on the fact that a message available on social media has about 20 times higher chances of reaching more audience than marketing events and about 30 times beyond media appearances altogether (Trusov et al., 2009). Most consumers tend to be influenced by electronic word of mouth compared to conventional advertising channels (Goldsmith & Horowitz, 2006).
The Online Brand Community
The best way to describe the Online Brand Community is based on a group of private persons clustered online alongside others with similar ideas to connect themselves together, exchange information, and support one another (Bressler & Grantham Sr., 200). According to the definition of Muniz Jr. & O’Guinn (2001), a brand community is perceived as a differentiated, non-geographically tied community, on the basis of Brand Equity and Social Media Marketing: A Literature Review 51 Set of Structured Social Relations among different brand admirers. Based on the technological advancements, the past geographically-tied concept revolving around brand communities is presently transcending geography. As opined by Abrahamsen & Hartmann (2006), online brand community makes use of the computer systems as a major tool to mediate the interaction existing between the online community members, which enable businesses to participate with customer based on combining expert content and community interactions. A particular brand community is considered a differentiated, non-geographically tied community, on the basis of social relationships existing among the brand admirers in the cyberspace itself (Jang et al., 2008).
Managing social media 500
Social media revolutionized mobile and web-based applications to create interactive platforms in which people and societies share, co-create, debate, and modify/criticise user-generated media. Taking into account the large amount of exposure of such platforms on mainstream media today, there appears to be a new raising star an altogether new medium of communication landscape.
Social media is not a very new platform as for example the website six degrees enabled users to do many activities similar to Facebook but on a smaller more basic scale.
Facebook intro 150
Consumerism the new free journalism for brand stories
Users of a product or a service will share their story of a brand when they have a good experience or a bad experience with that set brand. Businesses aiming to operate in the social media area must stand certain regarding brand fundamentals and their ability to deliver them to all touch points of the markets spectrum (Barwise and Meehan 2010). businesses should seek to actively stimulate user-generated story telling. Moreover, when a negative story/experience is shared businesses may well need to act to such incidence to limit potential brand crisis. Summing up the role moderators not just observers (Godes et al. 2005).
The relationship between consumer-generated brand and “soft” and “hard” brand performance measures (e.g., brand associations and attitudes, brand value).
Impact of consumer-generated brand stories on brand performance. Recent studies have investigated whether a brand can benefit from consumer-generated ads (Ertimur and Gilly 2012; Thompson and Malaviya 2013). Generally, these studies find that brands can benefit from consumer-generated ads under certain circumstances. When information is released that consumers, rather than the firm, created the ad, such attribution benefits the brand (i) if the ad viewers’ ability to scrutinize the message is low (i.e., constrained cognitive resources), (ii) if ad viewers learn background characteristics about the ad creator that enhance the perceived similarity between them and the ad creator, and (iii) if ad viewers are highly loyal toward the brand (Thompson and Malaviya 2013). Moreover, findings show that consumers respond to consumer-generated ads created in contests and unsolicited consumer-generated ads by engaging with the ad rather than the brand (Ertimur and Gilly 2012). Ad viewers perceive unsolicited consumer-generated ads as authentic but not credible, while they perceive consumer-generated ads created within a contest as credible but not authentic (Ertimur and Gilly 2012).
brand crisis 500 -Fors-Andrée & Ronge (2015) mention that the most regular crisis is a crisis ofconfidence, which could be the result of the above-mentioned types-
Brand crisis and crisis communication theories Brand crises can be a critical threat to brand reputations. When facing crises, timely and adequate corporate responses play an important role in restoring brand confidence among consumers. Of the two broad types of brand crises, performance-related crises commonly involve defective products and primarily reduce a brand’s perceived ability to deliver functional benefits, while a values-related crisis does not directly involve the product, but involves social or ethical issues surrounding the values espoused by the brand (Pullig et al., 2006).
Sources of reputational trouble http://resolver.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.sunderland.ac.uk/openurl?sid=google&auinit=SA&aulast=Greyser&atitle=Corporate+brand+reputation+and+brand+crisis+management&id=doi%3a10.1108%2f00251740910959431&title=Management+decision&volume=47&issue=4&date=2009&spage=590&site=ftf-live
Reputation related trouble comes in different forms, some are sudden and unexpected and others are a result of negligence(ather).
Product failure is when a product fails to perform as promised for example Firestone (tires caught up as the reason of many deaths in crashes)
Social responsibility gap pointing out to Apple regarding working conditions
Corporate misbehaviour Exxon (the spill in Alaska )
managing brand crisis via social media 1000
frontier markets in the middle east 250
significance of the study 250
Digital native is a term used to describe people who are born into technology(Prensky, 2001a), this group has been also referred to as the Net generation(Tapscott, 1998). Due to being familiar and relying on ICT applications more than the digital immigrants. Digital natives have been viewed as having a life absorbed in technology. Bound by emails, gaming technologies, iPhone, video conferencing and tablets.
Howe and Strauss (2000, 2003) categorised this age group as ‘millennials’, and distinguishing some characteristics and attributes that are unique in setting this age group apart from the prior generations, those characteristics include a high sense of team work and optimism
Being infused since birth in a technology rich environment has been seen as a major influencer in moulding skills and asperations that are different. This change in skills and asperations is very significant in the education process, For instance they are known to be active experiential learners, multitaskers and reliant on communication tools and technologies to access data and communicate with each other’s. (Frand, 2000; Oblinger & Oblinger, 2005; Prensky, 2001a, b; Tapscott, 1999).
This age group has a different learning process, so they need to be targeted differently
Some scholars found that if an organization compliments their response strategy with the nature of the crisis they will tend to have better post-crisis recovery thon those how didn’t compliment or relate in their strategy of responding to crisis. (e.g., Coombs & Holladay, 1996).while others disagree with them, (e.g., Claeys, Cauberghe, & Vyncke, 2010).
Others disagreed with them , by exploring two aspects that are likely to govern the effectiveness of complimenting the brand crisis to the nature of crisis regarding the response strategy. The first aspect of the exploration was the customers involvement in crisis (Arpan & Roskos-Ewoldsen, 2005; Choi & Lin, 2009a; Coombs & Holladay, 2005) as it is very critical to involve the customer
The first moderator under investigation is the consumers' crisis involvement. Recent studies in crisis communication stress the importance of involvement during crises (Arpan & Roskos-Ewoldsen, 2005; Choi & Lin, 2009a; Coombs & Holladay, 2005). The results of a case study in the context of crisis communication suggest that individuals with high crisis involvement scrutinize crisis information more in depth than those who are low in involvement (Choi & Lin, Journal of Business Research 67 (2014) 182–189 ☆ 2009a).
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