A project manager is responsible for the office and the entire project. The manager’s concern does not involve not just the engineering project but also every major and minor details of the project. The manager has to bear in mind the project cost, duration, project deadline, team capabilities as well as weakness or possible drawbacks. The drawbacks can vary from engineering issues to financial or various other technical or non-technical issues. Since the project manager’s responsibility is to safeguard the project from failure of deadline issues, the manager has to be very cautious about selection of the team members. The chapter deals with review of existing literature regarding PM and PMO.
1.2 Role of project manager and management office
Beringer, Jonas & Kock (2013) have commented that Project manager is the heart and soul of the project. The degree of the success of the project is very much dependent on the characteristics of the project manager while success is hard to find the harder to find successful project manager. All successful project manager’s share few common characteristics which are transparency, flexibility, consistency, communication skills, organisation skill, problem solving aptitude. Transparency of ideas and communication skill is the window to the manager and colleagues. The primary concern of the project manager is cost control. The project manager has to keep an open mind while dealing with the daily budget and cost with the colleagues, stakeholders.
Figure 1: Required skills of a Project Manager
Flexibility is a vital characteristic, which the manager has to display all the time. The ability to face new hurdles and barriers is most frequently required characteristics of the project manager. Kaiser, El Arbi & Ahlemann (2015) has opined that consistency is a habit or characteristics, which the manager must display at all, cost. The manager has to deal with all redundancy and bureaucratic issues on a day-to-day basis. Communication skills is the most expected trait the manager has to meet sine a vital line of communication has to be maintained always. Honest, straight and a clear channel have to be maintained in order to gain confidence of team members. Organisation skills are critical to the project manager in order to meet schedule and budget requirements. Allocation of resource in a most efficient manner has to be done in order to avoid misuse or wastage.
Todorović et al. (2015) has argued that keeping a constant tab of resources and diminishing resource requires a considerable amount of organisation skills. Problems occur irrespectively and respectively in every step of the project. In order to avoid such problems, first hand approach should be avoiding the previously made mistakes and newer initiatives. It is the duty of concerned manager to provide an agreeable solution to the conflict. Conflicts or differences in opinion should never harm the harmony of the project and the project manager has to act accordingly. In general, conflicts open up or arise when thinking of new possibilities. Conflict is the result of difference in ideas and opinions conflict resolution is resolved when all concerning individuals agree with.
In the opinion of de Carvalho, Patah & de Souza Bido (2015), control is an action taken by the project manager in order to achieve required goals throughout the life of the project. The objective is to maintain good working relation with all the parties involved in the project. The strategy of negotiation is based on change, control, trust and management of good client expectations. The strategy of research is required whenever further information is needed on the topic. The strategy of monitoring is required during labour supervision and resource. In addition, the administratively credibility will allow to maintain the project according to time and cost. The project manager acts as a facilitator in order to ensure that the team members have the material needed to perform their activities. The actions taken by the project manager need to be supported by the senior manager. This means the project manager’s credibility is supported by the organisation.
Figure 2: Characteristics of PMO
The project management office must reflect the organizational culture and strategy or risk being dismissed as an unnecessary layer of bureaucracy. Almost half of project managers’ office fails on first attempt because they do not align with organizational strategy. The common characteristics of a project management office are project planning, project scheduling, risk analysis, project tracking, support, methodology, training, headquarters, internal consulting, and software tools. Martinsuo (2013) has demonstrated that project planning involves the whole scope and aspects of the project, which would include timeframe, size of project and resources. Project scheduling involves a detailed timeframe of each procedure that will take place during the period of the project. Risk analysis is the details of the possible risks, which are associated with a particular project evaluating their possibilities into high, medium and low. This must be incorporated into a spreadsheet and continually monitored.
Project tracking is a monitoring procedure, which will incorporate status of weekly procedures in management and the project's schedule plan (Spalek, 2013). Support is the primary function of PMO to provide guidelines to implementation teams and advice to the project managers of various business units. Methodology is the project management office’s function, which aims at developing and implementing a consistent and standardized process of managing several projects according to a chosen methodology. Training allows the office
1.3 Significance of project manager and management office
Project Management is getting outstanding among various privately owned businesses. Ramazani & Jergeas (2015) has opined that in essential terms it is the orchestrating, dealing with and controlling of advantages and work to fulfil a pined for result or a specific target. Anything that incorporates a portrayed beginning and an end and is ordinarily time and money constrained is known as an assignment, and to ensure the smooth transport of this wander you need to take after basic endeavour organizational benchmarks. A PMO is more like an umbrella component inside any affiliation that neglects such endeavour organization works out. This division tries to systematize and show economies of emphasis in the execution of exercises. The PMO is the wellspring of documentation, bearing and estimations on the demonstration of undertaking organization. In any business organization, there is a huge importance of the manager of the project in order to achieve the goal. A project manager uses some of the professional software packages in order to have a proper planning and monitoring for the completion of a task. As per Bredillet, Tywoniak, & Dwivedula (2015), in addition to that, projects manager monitor the projects in every single step and communicate with others to have a smooth flow of work.
In any business, the project manager has the ability to make decisions for the project, which is valuable. In the opinion of Meng & Boyd (2017), a project manager while taking any decision uses various decision-making styles. On the other hand, a project manager's poor decision can also lead towards a break of a project.
Adapting to a situation:
A good project manager has an ability to adjust with any kind of difficult situation in order to complete a project. The project manager is required to have the ability to get accustomed to any kind of situation. As per the view of Hodgson & Paton (2016), project manager also makes an analysis on the given deadline as well as has the power to deny or approve any kind of request. On the other hand, sometimes with the heavy workload, it gets difficult to approve and if there is hurry then the project manager is not able to give the proper consideration on the current project. Hence, without the proper adaptation of situation as well as making the proper decision by a project manager can hamper the project.
Figure 3: Importance of a project manager
In the 21st century, the Project Management Office (PMO) is getting a lot of attention as well as popularity. The Project Management Office in an organisation mainly defines the standards as well as the process of the management of the project. In addition to that, the most effective Project Management Office mainly reflects the strategy along with that culture.
Strategic planning and governance:
The most important function of a Project Management Office is to govern as well as male strategic planning. In addition to that, the Project Management Office while strategic selection makes sure that it is related to the goals of an organization. As per Pemsel & Wiewiora (2013), the Project Management Office sets the procedures, rules and function for the controller of a project. On the other hand, if the Project Management Office set some of the wrong strategies for achieving the goals then all the blame will be under the Project Management Office and it can problems for the organisation.
Project Management Office allocates and manages all the resources in a proper manner for projects. As per the view of Too & Weaver (2014), Project Management Office also manages some of the priorities that include the budgets, information and many more of a project. On the other hand, if Project Management Office did not manage all the resource properly then it will create difficulty in terms of completing a project for an organisation. Thus, without the proper managing of resource and strategy planning, it can create a lot of trouble to the project.
Figure 4: Importance of Project Management Office
With extended globalization, industry accreditation programs, for instance, ISO 9000 and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, and furthermore government authoritative essentials, have moved relationship to systematize numerous methods. As per Silvius & Schipper (2014), Associations of all sizes and shapes are describing, getting and assembling best practices in process and undertaking organization and using it inside their PMO office. In any case, various little and medium assessed associations have a tendency to overlook the criticalness of undertaking organization office in light of advantage impediments as often as possible fundamental inside affiliations. Various associations have a tendency to find a qualified undertaking chief and in addition programming and after that desire, the pieces all turn out to be okay.
A productive PMO office is outstandingly a key inside a Project Management practice. It is basic to streamline PMO works first by systematizing Project Management gadgets and techniques. This will help in avoiding general endeavour perils and dissatisfactions. Over the long haul, how a wander organization office (PMO) is made and staffed for most extraordinary sufficiency depends upon a variety of various leveled factors, including concentrated on destinations, standard qualities and social objectives (Kissi, Dainty & Tuuli, 2013).
Undertaking Management Office or PMO is a specific division inside an affiliation that is responsible for keeping up the standards of wander organization inside that affiliation. The piece of errand organization office (PMO) in affiliations varies in perspective of the sort of affiliation and exercises that ought to be executed or passed on. The as an issue of first significance part of PMO that is to give a fundamental errand organization support as bearing to broaden heads of an affiliation. Pollack, Costello & Sankaran (2013) has mentioned that PMO is furthermore responsible for training new pursuit boss on various ways an affiliation can run wanders.
This is the most crucial region and the fundamental piece of the PMO is to ensure change and execution of dependable and furthermore standardized business shapes. As a bit of wander organization process, PMO helps in making an ordinary course of action of models, practices, and configurations for administering distinctive legitimate exercises. Fleming & Koppelman (2016) has discussed that organization implies effortlessness of advancement for director between different or distinctive endeavors and furthermore quick desire to retain data of new pursuit overseers. Through development of wander organization formats, the use of standard sections or norms for various exercises is ensured and this, hence, saves both time and money for any affiliation.
If an affiliation has successfully executed errand portfolio organization, it is the commitment of the PMO to administer and energize the entire technique. The obligations will include:
•Managing resource guess or influencing an advantage for confine outline. This will help in understanding the openness of various resources for progressive endeavors
•Enable catch of undertaking requests and certification each of those sales have enough critical information that can help in the assessment of that errand
•Maintaining an invigorated status of exercises that are in advance and those that have requests pending review
•Implement prioritization and scoring models for better assessment of the sales that should be attested
The PMO is responsible for get-together of pertinent errand data and requirements to convey information to be presented for study by the organization (Liu et al. 2014). In light of updates by wander boss related to a lone or various endeavors, the PMO will be accountable for following the general status of those assignments. They will help organization of the get-together of information and strategies for reporting the same to the organization.
1.4 Multidisciplinary nurtures of project management
Project management is an essential part of any business project as it helps in successful completion of the project in an appropriate manner. It is the duty of both the Project Manager (PM) and Project Management Office (PMO) to plan the entire project properly for its better completion. As per the viewpoint of Coombs (2015), Multidisciplinary approach of a project is essential in the current trend of business. Such development of project would assist in drawing latest technological services towards that particular project suitably. In the age of globalisation, project managers are much concerned in involving the current technology in any particular project. It is the duty of the responsible heads of the project to train their respective followers properly for providing their best in every project. Success of project management would lead to resolve the complexity in a larger aspect. Huge investment is involved in a particular project that is why, it is the duty of the manager to manage and plan the project work suitably. This will help in terminating the project work in an efficacious way.
Figure 5: Example of multidisciplinary development of project
Biesenthal & Wilden (2014) have contradicted and mentioned that qualitative insights are required to be present within a project manager for leading to development of the project in a proper manner. Growth of science has assisted in promoting cross-disciplinary cooperation within the members of the team involved in the project. Necessity of the critical thinking is a mandate for any project. Such skills will provide assistance in management of conflict in a project progression at a massive rate. PMO needs to incorporate surveyors in project management task because PMO will not be able to provide its utmost concern in each project equally. The reflection of such activity will be shown in the outcome of the project. For example, in a construction project, constant supervision along with proper assurance of engineers regarding proper work is a mandatory step. Henceforth, integrated management of project is possible by undertaking such approach under supervision of the expertise.
Gold, Hahn & Seuring (2013) has claimed that project managers are much more concentrated towards a particular project. Such managers blend their strategy along with the technologies of digitalised world for inclining suitable outcome in the project. Aspiring project managers leave no stones unturned while incorporating followers to a specific activity of any project. That is why; task of development of PMO is much more hurdle-free than that of PM. Daniel, Ward & Franken (2014) has commented that strength is required to be present in between the relation of both client and managers. This will help in ameliorating them in an effective way. Duty of both PM and PMO needs to be aligned with the specific objective of the project. This will help in proper nurturing of the project from its initial stage of execution. Rees-Caldwell & Pinnington, (2013) has commented that PMO helps in identifying crucial projects for the organisation thus, it needs to be updated regarding the skills of the employees of the venture. PM needs to monitor the entire project task along with the respective followers for delivering the task successfully.
Sheffield & Lemétayer (2013) has demonstrated that working in a team in not a new in the arena of business but proper management of team will help in enhancing the performance of the team. It has been seen from the literature that prerequisite of a PM and PMO is clear understanding of the project and its constraints. This will allow in taking accurate steps towards the betterment of the project work. Expertise suggestions are required to be welcomed after a particular time span so that better outcome can be involved in the work of the project. Planning skills as mentioned above need to be very particular regarding each of the project for adding extra advantages to the project work. PMO serves as a guardian to any project whereas PM acts as a major segment of such tree. Experience as well as formal revisions in the project tasks needed to be done for keeping the life cycle of the project active. Cultivation of the project will then only bring more effectiveness in the work in the perspective of (Rees-Caldwell & Pinnington, 2013). An appropriate plan followed by notable matrix of task will prove beneficial for any project. Diverse opinions have to be added to the task so that project can be completed gloriously.
1.5 Reflection of practical scenario
Ahern et al. (2014) has commented that there is a huge difference between a project manager and a project management office. Nowadays, companies demanding more strong and monitoring of all the projects related to IT and engineering are opening more number of project management offices in huge number. According to the research, it has been found that a project management office is that interior or exterior part of organisations, which maintain or prepare standards for project management in that organization. Project management office maintains the project status and direction in one spot while, the main aim of a project manager is to satisfy the needs like team needs and individual need and to deliver the total project on time within the given budget.
Figure 6: Need for implementing a PMO
As per the project management, research maximum percentage of the companies has a Project management office in 2016, which is more that 5% up from 2014. It is found that 30% of the organization without a project management office failed to execute their business in a proper way. The role of a project management office is to provide repeatable long-term profits and benefits to the business.
Figure 7: Project Management Process
Winch (2014) has mentioned that the companies that align their organization large project management office to strategy had 36% more genuine goals and business activities than those that did not. Moreover, they have 33% lesser projects considered as failures. The role and use of a PMO has a long history establishing back to 1930s. Currently, the topic of project management office has coated with its strong needs. There are important factors to achieve a project officer’s long lasting vision. Dyer et al. (2014) has suggested describing the project management office to earn respect from the organisation or company. It is viewed as a fundamental point for project management implementation across an organisation along with a supportive element that implies project management tools and techniques successfully. In today’s competitive world, a project manager’s fundamental challenge is to managing different unexpected events. Managing with different unexpected events requires an organisational structure that helps a project manager to move with a huge amount of flexibility. In recent years, Chang et al. (2013) has stated that project success can be achieved by concentrating on planning and on controlling and supervising risks.
Figure 8: Responsibilities undertaken by a Project Manager
However, project managers and project management office related to each other working are completely different in the final goal they follow. Project manager office tries to manage the main scope changes that can lead to best opportunities for an organization whereas project manager focus on a specific objective. A project management office is responsible to manage the interdependence between all the projects at a same time but the job of a project manager is to investigate that particular project which is assigned to that person only. Project management office sets the quality for project management like tools and process that are required for the project and this process is being followed by a project manager in a way so that they can execute the project management objectives.
1.6 Impact of science and engineering efforts
Project management (PM) backpedals comparably as there has been a need to achieve things. Regardless of the way that the route toward completing an errand has not by and large been implied as PM, and for the most part was just seen as a social occasion of activities that ought to have been done, the foundations were up 'til now the same; work that was constrained by time, resources and assets.
Svejvig & Andersen (2015) have informed that the soonest known use of a PM structure was the working of the pyramids in Ancient Egypt - in spite of the way that the route in which this errand was ran would be to some degree more than defective in this decade. Undertaking organization as we most likely is mindful it today began to reveal itself in the midst of the mechanical agitation, when associations and organizations began to develop rapidly and computerization was brought into parts.
Chang et al. (2013) have commented that progressions in the information organization range, including the introduction of (PCs) and frameworks organization workplaces, realized simplicity PCs with high viability being open to a broader group. These inferred associations of all sizes could remain to use PCs to administer and control complex endeavour designs.
There was different groundbreaking endeavours did in the midst of the 15-year time allotment. Dyer et al. (2014) has stated that the Channel Tunnel incorporated the interest of English and French governments, budgetary foundations, improvement associations, which implies differentiates in tongue, and estimations must be researched. The calamity including the Challenger space conveys focused thought on chance organization, store up movement and quality organization.
Svejvig et al. (2015) has commented that there is a great impact of science and engineering effort in the literature review of project manager and project management office. Use of technology in a project has lots of advantages as well as disadvantages also. Most of the organisation uses science and engineering in their project to accomplish their specific work. Business technologies like computers, accounting softwares such as zip books, sap business, virtual meeting software such as google drive, skype and many more help a project to execute very easily and quickly. These technologies eliminate the workplace boundaries and they have also provided the movement knowledge and information at the organisation that increase the decision making capacity also.
Figure 9: Impact of IT in Project Management segments
On the contrary, Rees et al. (2013) argued that the use of technology also can distract employees of an organisation in work. The use of social network like Facebook, twitter at work can divert the employees from work. That is why some companies have decided to block access to some particular websites. The growth of cloud computing, social application and mobile networks is changing the way teams communicate and interchange informations. These devices have reduced the workload largely. There are many projects that uses cloud based project management product but in some project, there is a restriction of Facebook group to communicate with each other. Daniel et al. (2014) has commented that there is a need to know the technology process to lead a team successfully.
Gold et al. (2013) has contradicted and said that too much use of technology is harmful for a project. Cloud computing and the security applications related to it will help make the IT project more strong. Project managers need to keep updating all the software related to a specific project. In this dynamic and changing world there is a need of collaboration, social networking and mobility are few technology required for the increasing responding, not only among the teams but also among the stakeholders. These tools also encourage group works together to complete specific tasks. At the same time, project managers must be very careful while recognising the proper channels to reach the stakeholders.
Project management offices are encouraging new trends in IT like project portfolio management, management of change and many more. Biesenthal et al. (2014) has mentioned that day-by-day business is increasingly projectized. The challenge for the project manager is to make most effective use of the team whereas, project management office is the father of the entire project. The role of this office is to look out the entire project at a same time if they are running well or not and for this reason use of technology plays a vital role for the project management office. It is very true that information technology quick recollection and storage of huge number of data and knowledge but it is a very poor alternative in conversion of information to knowledge. Many organisations are there who makes the use of technology in a right way.
An imperative wander endeavoured was the Year 2000 assignment, or, as it has more customarily insinuated, the millennium bug. This wander insinuated the worry over the convenience of PCs at 12am on January initial, 2000, which proceeded to twist up discernibly an overall ponder. The issue was that paying little heed to the likelihood that it was settled at one association, immunity was not guaranteed, as a breakdown in the stock system could regardless affect the whole operation.
The course of action was to set up a virtual errand office over the web, which empowered relationship to screen and pass on millennium bug tries, develop a peril organization outline and pass on ceaseless coordination when the new century moved over. The crisis was dismissed, yet not without a painful lesson on the hugeness of risk organization in an association.
Wander chiefs used to be seen as task masterminded staff with not a considerable measure of data on business or crucial issues, and were sped up board after the orchestrating stages had been done. Nowadays, what was once seen as just a technique for affiliation has transformed into a fundamental item, as being acknowledged methodology is right now a need of any business.
Winch (2014) has claimed that the present wander administrators are fundamentally more connected with business decisions, including:
•Establishing wander focuses at a particular and business level
•Developing a procedure that interfaces the endeavour and companions targets
•Selecting and arranging organization portfolio wanders
•Deciding on the affiliation's offer
It is commonly found that as a procedure for affiliation has formed into a huge bit of a relationship, as those in wander organization parts are today seen as bosses and key researchers, rather than chiefs.
2.7 Testing of theories
In this recent research on the future of project management, it has been found that various global factors such as technological advancement and the increasing global change were recognised in relation to that project management could take the main role in helping the changes developed.
According to the Mcgregor’s theory X and theory Y, it has been found that perception manager has many employees. Theory X states that according to the manager, the employees are very lazy and are always on way to look out to escape work. This thinking forces the manager to terminate their employees and results in restrictive supervision. The manager has a tendency to blame others for any issue. On the other hand, theory Y says that manager has believe that all the employees are self-motivated and they can be trusted. The employees are very responsible towards their jobs and can perform well. Therefore, this type of believes bring positive environment in a project of an organisation. There will be a easy communication, cooperative decision making in an organisation.
Figure 10: Mcgregor’ theory X and Y
There is a theory called expectancy theory that was made based on the assumption that every people choose a particular behaviour depending on his or her expectation on the intended result. There are three variable depending on the theory that is mentioned below:
Expectancy is expectation that results to suitable performance. Then comes instrumentality, which results into favourable outcomes like salary appraisal, promotions and many more and the third is valence which is given as rewards depending upon the needs and motivation. Expectancy theories may help the project managers in understanding that how the employees behave and what choices they should make when there are alternative options. The managers are responsible for understanding the people’s expectations from the organisation towards a desired performance (Bryde et al. 2013).
Figure 11: Expectancy theory
Coombs (2015) has commented that project management office depends upon the community of practice theory. Primary results from a national health care from a study are used to check the security of the approach. In today's world, knowledge is based on the economic calls to share knowledge. This is very true in case of in the field of internationalization of business. Where products are developed and managed in many countries. This is very true for national companies that compete with the worldwide market. The originality of the research is that it shacks light on project management offices in a new theoretical view, which depends upon the community of practice theory in the field of knowledge management. Project based organisation are very concerned about knowledge management. Practice theory is a very essential theory for the project management office. This theory says that project management office maintains a unique standard of the entire project by keeping a regular view on all the projects. This aims at exploring project management office through community of practice theory.
Figure 12: Practice theory of PMO
1.8 Construction of theories
Mcgregor theory X and theory Y has given different opinions about a project management. If in a project, maximum team member dislike their work or are not getting interest in doing their jobs then it will become very difficult for the project manager to manage the team. Then according to this theory, the project manager had to find an authentication style of management. This approach should be immediate and requires micromanaging people’s work to ensure that the work is done properly. This is known as theory X. On the other hand, in a project management if people are very energetic to do their work then there will be a environment of more participative management style. Manager who use this approach trust their employees to take holding of their work and they will do their work more properly. This way the project will go in a systematic way. This theory is known as theory Y. The approach that manager will take will have a significant impact on the employees of the team members. The role of the project management office also depends on the two theories.
Liu et al. (2014) has stated that Expectancy theory also helps a project manager to run a project very smoothly. If the expectation of all the employees of a particular project is fulfilled then the project will achieve a suitable result in a very short span of time. If the employees of that project get proper salary and other benefits on time, then their expectations will meet. Thus, they will work very effectively by giving all efforts in that specified project. The project management office should also look after all the project and should evaluate whether the expectations of all the employees those who are working are getting satisfied or not. It is the duty of the project manager is to predict the reaction of such action and then set the entire plan according to that reaction. Fleming et al. (2016) has commented that during managing a project, the manager should consult with the team members so that everyone can get a clear idea about that particular project. This theory helps to set the right goal to motivate the entire team member to increase their performance in order to achieve the complete success of the project. The formula of this theory is very simple. It can be calculated by the three variables that imply a motivational force to achieve the required result.
Figure 11: expectancy theory formula
Both project manager and project management office are equally important to execute a project successfully. Without a manager, a project cannot run in a proper way, similarly with the project management office a project cannot run in a systematic manner. A project manager needs to be very punctual with the job that is assigned to the manager. This review has made it clear that project manager and project management office are the two main heads of a project. A project involves exactly the same skill that everyone uses in their routine work life like planning, managing a variety of resources, reporting and many more.
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