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    Macroeconomic Assignment Help

    Macroeconomic Assignment Help

    Macroeconomic Assignment

    a. State the difference between 

    Absolute Advantage and Comparative Advantage

    Both absolute advantage and comparative advantage are important for international trade that helps countries to make decision regarding resource allocation, production of goods along with export and imports. The significant difference between absolute advantage and comparative advantage are as follows: 

    Definition: Absolute advantage is the basic ability of a country that helps it to produce specific goods at a lower marginal cost and in an efficient manner. Whereas, comparative advantage is the capability that a country requires to produce a good at a lower marginal rate along with maintaining opportunity cost to other countries. Basic Concept: Absolute advantage deals with lower marginal cost of production as compare to the competitor country. Whereas, comparative advantage deals with both comparative advantage and opportunity cost of a specific good along with a comparison to other competitors country. 

    Trade Benefits: Not always, absolute cost advantage is beneficial for both the countries that are involved in trade transaction (Eaton et al., 2016). In case of comparative advantage, both the countries that are engaged in trade are mutually benefited from this. 

    Cost of Production: Absolute advantage helps in lowering the production cost in comparison to competitors. Whereas, comparative advantage specific helps in lowering opportunity cost along with maintain opportunity cost in comparison to other competitors. 

    Production of Goods: Absolute advantage helps nations having a flat out favorable position of delivering a decent produces a higher volume of that great with the equivalent accessible assets. Comparative advantage helps nations with near favorable position consider the creation of various merchandise in a nation while choosing the generation of a particular decent and asset portion for the equivalent.

    Resource Allocation: An outright bit of leeway may not be extremely powerful in choosing the asset designation by a Country for creation of a decent, as it doesn't accept into record the open door cost of generation. Similar preferred position accepts into record the open door cost of creation, it is increasingly successful in choices for asset allotment, local generation, and import of explicit merchandise.

    Benefits to Economies: In case of absolute advantage exchanges, the setting of supreme bit of leeway is not commonly useful in nature. On the other hand, comparative advantage exchanges choices dependent on relative favorable position are commonly valuable in nature.

    Effectiveness for Economy: In case of absolute advantage exchanges, the idea of total favorable position may not be powerful as it centers on amplifying creation with the equivalent accessible assets without considering the open door cost of generation. On the other hand, comparative advantage the idea of total favorable position may not be powerful as it centers around amplifying creation with the equivalent accessible assets without considering the open door cost of generation.

    The Terms of Trade and the Exchange Rate

    The Terms of Trade is the normal cost of fares/by the normal cost of imports. It is a proportion of a nations relative intensity. 

    Terms of Trade (TOT) = (Index of average export prices / Index of average import prices)x 100

    On the off chance that fare costs rise in respect to import costs, we state there has been an improvement in the terms of exchange. – A unit of fare purchases moderately more imports. For the most part, this prompts an improvement in expectations for everyday comforts as imported merchandise seem less expensive to shoppers.

    On the off chance that import costs rise in respect to fare costs we state there has been a crumbling in the terms of exchange (Christiano et al., 2015). For the most part, this prompts a decrease in expectations for everyday comforts as remote money profit are moderately less and imported shopper merchandise increasingly costly.

    On the other hand, an exchange rate is the value of one nation’s currency that is linked with the currency with another nation or other economic region. Various types of exchange rate is available such as free floating exchange rate, foreign exchange rate and others. 

    A Demand Side Shock and a Supply Side Shock 

    Shocks are events that are by and large unexpected and bring out changes in real economic growth, inflation and unemployment. All countries are exposed to some degree to external economic shocks. There is evidence that lower and middle-income developing nations are more vulnerable partly because they have a less diversified economy with a narrow range of production and export industries. 

    Demand side shocks 


    Demand side shocks generally affect various components of aggregate demand, for examples,

    1. Economic downturn is a major trading partner of demand side shocks

    2. Demand side shocks are unexpected and it increases or decreases tax for welfare purpose

    3. It leads to financial crisis and that causes bank lending or fall in credit 

    4. Unemployment rate increases rapidly due to demand side shocks

    5. Negative demand side shock can lead to negative multiplier effects and can induce negative accelerator effect on the amount of investment spending. 

    Supply Side Shocks
    Supply side shocks can affect short run aggregate supply and it also affect country’s long run productivity potential, for examples, 

    1. It helps to raise the oil and gas price and price for all other commodities

    2.  Supply side shocks induces political turmoil or issues related to strikes

    3. Supply side shocks leads to natural disasters that reduces the production 

    4.   Supply side shocks leads to unexpected breakthroughs in production technology 

    A Trade Surplus and a Budget Surplus     

    A trade surplus is an economic measure of a positive balance of trade, where a country's exports exceed its imports.     

    Trade Balance = Total Value of Exports - Total Value of Imports

    A trade surplus occurs when the result of the above calculation is positive. A trade surplus represents a net inflow of domestic currency from foreign markets (Semuel and Nurina, 2015). It is the opposite of a trade deficit, which represents a net outflow, and occurs when the result of the above calculation is negative.

    Question 3. Use the Australian Bureau of Statistics website and perhaps the Reserve Bank of Australia website to answer the following questions: What are the current levels of the following economic indicators in the Australian economy? (Remember these should be expressed in annual terms)

    With the joblessness rate ascending from 5.0% toward the beginning of the year to 5.3% in August, and the most recent GDP figures indicating moderate development and the economy going in reverse when representing populace increment. There are two arrangement arms of the economy – financial and money related. The administration controls the financial side through spending and expenses; the Reserve Bank controls the fiscal side. The RBA has just cut the money rate twice this year, to a record low of 1%. In any case, with expansion development still underneath the 2%-3% focus on the inquiry is whether the bank is doing what is necessary, or whether the administration needs to accomplish more.

    The Reserve Bank of Australia brought down its money rate by 25 bps to another record low of 0.75 percent during its September meeting, the awful rate cut for the current year, planning to help business and salary development and to give certainty that is more prominent that expansion will be reliable with the medium-term target (Majumder, 2016). Policymakers additionally flagged the requirement for an all-inclusive time of low loan fees, while saying the national bank is set up to straightforwardness money related approach further if necessary. Loan cost in Australia arrived at the midpoint of 4.35 percent from 1990 until 2019, arriving at a record-breaking high of 17.50 percent in January of 1990 and a record low of 0.75 percent in October of 2019. 

    Question 4. Use the aggregate demand- aggregate supply diagram model to explain theTotal

    interest is the total of four parts: utilization, speculation, government spending, and net fares. Utilization can change for various reasons, incorporating developments in salary, charges, assumptions regarding future pay, and changes in riches levels. Speculation can change in light of its normal gainfulness, which thus is formed by assumptions regarding future financial development, the formation of new advancements, the cost of key sources of info, and duty motivating forces for venture. Venture can likewise change when loan fees rise or fall. Government spending and assessments are controlled by political contemplations. Fares and imports change as indicated by relative development rates and costs between two economies. Discretionary cash flow is salary after expenses. An inflationary hole exists when harmony is at a degree of yield above potential GDP. A recessionary hole exists when balance is at a degree of yield beneath potential GDP.

    The Keynesian point of view centers on total interest. The general thought being that organizations produce yield just on the off chance that they anticipate that it should sell (Gokmenoglu et al., 2015). Consequently, while the accessibility of the components of creation decides a country's potential total national output, or GDP, the measure of merchandise and ventures really being sold—known as genuine GDP—relies upon how a lot of interest exists over the economy. You can see this idea spoke to graphically in the chart underneath.

    The crucial guideline of the old style hypothesis is that the economy is self‐regulating. Old style business analysts keep up that the economy is constantly fit for accomplishing the common degree of genuine GDP or yield, which is the degree of genuine GDP that is gotten when the economy's assets are completely utilized. While conditions emerge every now and then that reason the economy to fall beneath or to surpass the regular degree of genuine GDP, self‐adjustment instruments exist inside the market framework that work to take the economy back to the normal degree of genuine GDP. The traditional regulation—that the economy is consistently at or close to the common degree of genuine GDP—depends on two immovably held convictions: Say's Law and the conviction that costs, wages, and loan fees are adaptable. Consider, however, what happens when the funds from aggregate saving exceed the needs of all borrowers in the economy (Galí, 2018). In this situation, real GDP will fall below its natural level because investment expenditures will be less than the level of aggregate saving. This situation is illustrated in Figure,

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