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    Introduction to Leadership

    Chapter I: Evolution of leadership
    Before understanding leadership, a brief sapience into the development of leadership that will help us understand the sophistication of human behaviors. Even though the wisdom of leadership is relatively recent, our aim to apprehend human behavior commences from the existence of mankind.
    Thus, studying the historical background of leadership, will transpose our focus from becoming a competent leader to the reason behind becoming a leader. Though it’s not that "How" is not important, but acquiring some understanding into the "Why" and the "What" will provide us the fundamental knowledge required to comprehend "How". More concretely, it would increase our ability to act out the behaviors’ in a natural manner. On the contrary, the style of leadership is still bait for a debate among scholars.

    Chapter II: Historical Background of leadership
    Many have tried to establish a depiction of leadership that would embrace the difficulty of this universal word. One simplified definition of leadership is that it’s a procedure by which an archon can counsel, advice and influence the conduct and work of others towards achievement of predetermined goals in a given scenario (Antonakis and Day, 2017). This definition emphasizes the significance of prospecting leadership as a process, directed at swaying a particular group of people to meet a predetermined objective.
    To most people, the significance of leadership is obvious no matter what the exact definition or context. In organization, productive leadership will provide better quality of goods and services; it will help the people of the organization to develop a sense of integration, personal motivation, and higher degree of contentment among those supervising the work; and it provides an imperative influence and vision, a conjunction with the environment, a robust mechanism for transformation, and a resource for enlivening the culture of the organization 
    The Personal Side of Leadership
    Chapter III: Various Styles of Leadership
    A leadership style is a style of delivering direction, executing plans, and influencing people (DuBois, Hanlon, Koch, et. al, 2015).Various writers have propounded different leadership styles as depicted by leaders in the political, business or other fields. The different styles of leadership are as follows: 
    a) Democratic leadership
    b) Autocratic leadership
    c) Charismatic leadership
    d) Bureaucratic leadership
    e) Transformational leadership
    f) Transactional leadership 
    g) Laissez-faire leadership
    h) Situational leadership
    Democratic Leadership and Autocratic leadership
    Democratic Leadership Style –More popularly referred as participative leadership. From the name itself we can comprehend that leaders often asks the workers to provide input before taking up a decision. Productivity of the workers increases as they have a higher level of satisfaction in their work environments and the organization can reap benefit from better productivity (DuBrin, 2015).
    Autocratic Leadership-Unlike, democratic leadership autocratic leaders have expressive control over the workers and rarely consider any suggestion from the workers. For instance, 
    Charismatic Leadership and Bureaucratic leadership
    Charismatic leadership simply means the manner of encouraging specifically behaviors in others through articulate communication to accomplish a specific goals of the organization (Mendenhall, Osland, Bird, et. al, 2017).
    Bureaucratic leadership versions are enforced in highly governed or supervisory environments, where strict adherence to the policies and procedureis required in a predefined hierarchy.
    Transformational and Transactional leadership
    Transformational leadership –From the view point of the workers its considered to be the most favorable, style of leadership. Team leader who depicts transformational leadership persuade staff through articulate communication and by creating a work place of intellectual nourishment (Ghasabeh,Soosay and Reaiche, 2015). However, from an individual perspective they are often blue-sky thinkers and may require specific instruction from the team leader to successfully accomplish their strategic visions. 
    Transactional leadership - emphasizes on directing, organizing, and performance; transactional leadership is a style of leadership in which leaders focuses on compliance aspect by following a method of reward and punishment (Yahaya and Ebrahim, 2016).
    Laissez-faire leadership and Situational leadership
    Laissez-faire leadership, more popularly referred as delegative leadership, in which leaders allow the group members to take most of the decisions. However, such style of leadership is not effective and moreover there is a tendency of deadlock as every individual has their own way of thinking (Lussier and Achua, 2015). 
    Situational leadership focuses on adaptability and simplicity in execution, depending upon the situation leaders will adapt the style of leadership with equipment’s necessary to skillfully maneuver the demands of the diverse workforce and evolving in big corporate (Northouse, 2018). 
    Importance of Leadership in the Success of an Enterprise
    Leadership is the capability and initiative to take up onus of the responsibility to accomplish the strategic goals of the entity. A good leader combines efforts of the members and direct their efforts towards achievement of the goals (Demirtas and Akdogan, 2015). The activities that are performed by the leader in an organization are as follows:
    Initiates thefeat- Leader generally starts the work by intimating the policies and procedures to the juniorsbefore the inception of the task 
    Encouragement - A leader plays an important role in encouraging the workers towards the achievement of the goals. He encourages the workers by rewarding them with both monetary and non-monetary benefits and thereby gets the job done by the subordinates (Lussier and Achua, 2015).
    Counseling - A leader not only supervise but also play the role of an advisor. Supervision means directing the subordinates so that they can complete the task effectively and efficiently.
    Instilling confidence- Confidence is an attributethat is indispensable for success. A leader can instill confidence among the members by explaining them the importance of their role and responsibilities. The productivity of  the workers increases manifold if the leader can effectively address their grievances  
    Building Self Esteem- Self-esteem of an individual can be improved when the workers are willing to cooperate with the seniors to avail the cooperation of the workers there should be a free flow of communication. A leader can act as a catalyst for improving the morale of the employee by communicating effectively with them (Northouse, 2018).
    Create a positive work environment - A good work place helps in sound and consistent growth. The leader often has to take up the role of relationship manager for building cordial relations with the employee. He should coordinate with the employees listen to their concerns and resolve their issues. He should treat employees compassionately. 
    Co-ordination- Coordination means synchronization of the activities, responsibilities, and regulating the control structures to ensure that the team members of the entity are able to work efficiently to accomplish the predetermined objectives (Lussier and Achua, 2015).
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    Importance of Leadership Qualities in a Manager
    Leading by example is one of the most effective ways by, which a person can become effective leader in an organization. The way a person conduct himself as a leader will send a strong message to your followers – For instance while developing Business Continuity Plan there are certain skills that are necessaryto ensure that BCP is in line with overall goals of the organization. In order to ensure that all the important products and services and their supporting resources are pinpointed and included in BCP plan. For this BCP team leader has to actively listen to members of the BCP team, listen to their suggestion, views and opinion. The objective of BCP of an organization is to reduce the impact of the damage that would be caused to the critical business operations. While developing the plan the leader of the team might face a challenging situation in order to fulfill the objective of the plan. In such a situation he is expected to provide support to overcome such a challenge. One of the effective ways is to respond constructively to such a challenging situation. In order to ensure that the BCP plan is effective and fit for the purpose a leader has to adapt situational leadership style that would appropriately match the scenario.
    Chapter IV Reasons as to why good manager should have leadership qualities
    1. Honesty
    Honesty is an important attribute, which is required to be a good manger .The moment a team is suspicious about the integrity of the leader it starts falling apart. In business, honesty is an important criterion. If the manager is candid and transparent then it becomes easier for the employee to communicate 
    2. Communication skills
    Managers have to communicate their requirements effectively. Great managers should have splendid communication skills. In order to ensure that the team and the manager are on the same parlance, that’s why effective communication skills are important. 
    3. Decisiveness
    Whether managers work for a team or manage several more departments, in addition to those routine decisions, all managers have to take a real time decision (Covin and Slevin, 2017). The future of the business depends upon the quality of the decision taken by the manager  
    4. Responsibility
     As Henry Fayol rightly explained, that a person who is exercising authority must be given the responsibility so that he can execute his task. Therefore, a good manger should be accountable for his actions and decision 
    5. Creativity
    Creativity is referred as an activity of metamorphosing new and innovative ideas into reality. It refers to the ability of perceiving things in a different manner, and finds hidden patterns, to resolve a difficult situation easily.
    In the context of, when team members know that their efforts would be appreciated, it will boost their morale and self-esteem. Improved attitude and commitment towards their work would motivate them to aim for better results and increased productivity. Therefore, a leader has to understand that reward and recognition can drive a team member to achieve highest level of efficiency. He should communicate the same with senior management so that they can frame a good incentive plan. The role of leader is instrumental while framing up the incentive plans for the employees.
    Integrity is one of the basic fundamentals to maintain the unity of the team. A good leader should take up the onus of exhibiting personal integrity to make their members understand the significance of integrity. He should encourage his members to take calculated risk so that they can challenge the established ways of doing things and identify any room for improvements.