Answer to Question 1
IT plays an important role in every field today. Nowadays IT system is used by the federal as well as by local governments in its day-to-day operations and its role is expanding over time. If we compare the Information technology roles in government department with other organizations then this is just a drop in the ocean. To introduce new projects in the government department in context of EA, a comprehensive roadmap is required which comprises following components:
The objectives should be planned to meet the desired maturity of business capabilities. An effective IT program should also be prepared to align the EA practice with IT system.
The targets for interim performance should be marked by the project team which are necessary to be achieved for desired outcomes.
Gaps and Barriers:
A list of potential barriers regarding market structure, technology limitations and public acceptance should be analyzed to prepare an efficient plan for dealing with them.
The required resources and solution actions should be taken to overcome the gaps and barriers in the way to achieve the goals. Effective technology development and financial mechanism should be deployed to get the desired outcomes.
Priorities and timeliness:
A list of important actions should be planned by the project team which is needed to be taken on priority basis in order to achieve the targeted results. Proper monitoring and effective evaluation of performance should also be done to assess the desired outcomes.
Answer to Question 2
Information technology is important in various routine operations of both state and federal government. To meet the speed and power of computers, a lot of manpower is required which will also incur high annual revenues for the government. Hence information technology plays essential key roles in the government departments which are as follows:
Information technology allows the government to communicate quickly with its subordinate departments and military when required and to respond quickly towards the issues.
It enables the government to store and retrieve all kind of records safely with higher storage power.
With the help of an effective IT system the traffic of different areas may be regulated and a real time background can be taken by the police officers.
The major role of IT in the public sectors organization is to keep large information and data of company with higher safety level. It provides aid to the organizations in dealing with the mass data and information appropriately.
IT system Provides better transactions of business process of government and reduces the length of processes through digital techniques. It also helps the government in planning of capital, management of inventory, accounting and payroll and many more.
Answer to Question 3
The Enterprise Architecture practice allows using the Enterprise Architecture artifacts to support the planning in context of information system. The EA artifacts are essential in EA practices as it comprises the documents regarding the enterprise architecture. It gives description of an organization from separate views which are significant for execution of IT system. The essential EA artifacts which should be implemented in the given scenario are following:
It is an important artifact as it offers an overarching context in the planning of information system. It is also called as maxims and has an effective impact on business as well as on IT. It comprises the basic rules, directions, goals and values which are coordinately marked by the business leaders and architects.
It defines the structure for future IT investments with their engagement to different business areas. The roadmaps are developed by the business leaders and architects to align the potential IT investment with appropriate business plan and begin the IT projects.
It represents the connections between several system, database, applications, business processes and platform which covers a major part of IT landscape in corporate. It comprises guiding material for the basic technical help.
It assists the business stakeholders to evaluate the impact of proposed IT project on the overall business. It describes the expected value of business, risk, cost and other relevant factors about IT projects in the business manner.
It is necessary for the project team while implementation of IT project and comprises the design of solution in high technical way with all important details regarding the execution of project.
Answer to Question 4
The public sector organizations and departments are usually work in the interest of common public which covers all the services related to the safety, health, education and employment. For such purpose they collect, process and share all the personal information of these people hence to provide an adequate protection to the data of common public and data related to the national security and health, it is must for the government to adopt proper program or measures. To provide appropriate protection to the documents collected by the government departments as per the degree of sensitivity, it is justified to divide them into different categories. The classification of documentation is must to collect the information and data according to the level of sensitivity. In United Kingdom the Government Security Classification (GSC) was published by the government to ensure the appropriate collection of information by all public sector companies. This system has four principles which ensure the timely, secure and effective sharing of information among different public sector organizations and departments.
Key Classification Principles
The information which is required to be collected by the government has intrinsic value and needs an appropriate level of security. The level of security refers to the level of security which could be classified in following three levels:
Every engaged person with government i.e. staff, services providers and others have obligation to keep confidentiality of information which they access
The access of information should be given to the staff only if it is majorly required.
The information or assets exchanged with the external partners must be secured with the relevant legislative requirements and obligations.
Answer to Question 5
An Enterprise architect covers several aspects of architectures such as business, organizational, information, application and technological architecture. For the implementation of an effective EA practice in any organization, selection of an adequate model is necessary. Business capability model is considered as an important model used in EA artifacts which provides structured representations of organizational capabilities of business and their relationships. This model shows the high level business capabilities of an organization. It describes that what an organization can do and it is dependent on the structure of organization. In the given scenario, the model of business capabilities would be an efficient option as the department has various levels of operations. This model will enable the mapping of efficient IT initiatives to provide its impact on business capabilities. It will also help to understand the IT initiatives and determine its potential scope, impact and disruption.
Lastly the model will help to plan and determine the investment for IT initiatives in Enterprise architect and to decide that what portion of investment should be deployed in which aspect of IT initiative. Hence the business capability model is entirely based on the business capabilities of organization and implements the programs in the organization as per the evaluation of capabilities.
Answer to Question 6
In the implementation of Government department’s EA, the EA standards provide aid to project team in executing the EA model. These standards address the strategic expansion of technology use in context of changing requirements of business environment. The standards are used by the organizations to meet several goals such as to align the IT resources to strategic mission of organization, to improve the IT risk management, to reduce the operating cost, to maximize the services, to improve the technology capabilities and to optimize the organization’s technology assets. On the other hand the landscape has an essential role to play in the implementation of EA. The landscape supports the architects in optimizing the IT landscape and to choose the best option for new IT project. It represents the reference diagram for the basic technical planning.
Answer to Question 7
With the ramified changes in the economic and business environment, the government has also started to adopt new technologies and systems in every aspect of its operations. It also includes IT initiatives which have been taken by the government for improving their overall operating performance. There are certain other initiatives which could be proved as more productive for the government in IT sector such as:
To introduce skill and training programs for staff and other stakeholders to develop knowledge of digital working.
Appointment of well skilled and trained IT individuals who could bring innovative changes in the alignment of EA practices with IT.
Support a portfolio of IT-Enabled Business Change.
Alignment of the strategies to improve the EA practice with the updated IT programs.
Renewal of the Information Systems and Technology Strategy.
Answer to Question 8
The EA artifact delivers various considerations in the government department’s EA which involves following major elements:
Simplification of an enterprise- It helps to includes more effective business operations with minimal cost and more capabilities.
Align technology to the business: it asses the business models and creates a transformation project in context of enterprise aspects which guides the organizations in decision making and investment decisions.
Align enterprise components to strategy: It helps in due diligence process while making any acquisition or takeover which supports the management in designing new business model and operating methods.
Effective IT operations: It develops the software support and increase the portability of applications in business which eventually improves the ability of management to address critical enterprise wide issues.
Answer to Question 9
The EA vision provides description of proposed ability of decision makers within the enterprise. EA vision describes that how the new capabilities would meet the strategic objectives and business goals. The sub-types of EA vision involves:
Preliminary solution architectures
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