An information system is a kind of formal, sociotechnical, and business system which is designed for accumulating, processing, storing, or distributing the necessary data. Simply, it entails of facts which has been systematized for helping while answering the questions in order to solve the issues (Botchkarev & Finnigan, (2015). Therefore, the main objective of this assignment is to describe the issues related to IT projects with the help of a case study. Along with this, explain the significance of the project manager in the success of the project by explaining its role in the IT project. Additionally, outline the concept of Triple Constraint in a project and how fluctuation in single limitations affects the other two. At last, throw some lights one the complications and issues encountered by a project manager while the management of the information system.
According to the case study, the installation of this advanced system of information requisite dedicated time, assets, and a sufficient amount of funds for obtaining a heavy profitable return. However, it’s a beneficial system for organizations but most of the companies commit the mistake by valuing this technology over their business procedure. As a result, investment in information systems drives beyond the needs of enterprise which leads to inefficiency and wastefulness. Then, this automatically converted into the failure of an entire system of information system due to the lack of coordination in a business process. Therefore, the foremost aim of the IT project is to understand the amalgamation of project management with information system development because it will offer an outstanding philosophy as well as tools for managing the IS project successfully (Chang & Torkzadeh, (2013).
By considering the interview, a major problem which is identified related with the development of information system are categorized into five major themes such as; funds, infrastructure, updating earlier system, skills, checking and scrutiny. Thus, the main aim of an IT project is to give validation and a maximum understanding of crucial challenges that influence the growth of the system in the PEH agency. Ultimately, PEH is an organization covered in a case study which involved in establishing training system for retired army employees for uplifting their skills to work as a civilian in the private industry. Therefore, detailing of various activities which incurred while training requisite to manage in the information system for reducing the probabilities of mistakes. Hence, a key informant of this project is reporting every major challenge that is encountered by PEH while the development of the Information system at the initial stage (Karim, (2011).
PHE is an organization that was established in almost 1994 as a gazette in Malaysia on 25th August and became operational further on 30th August. The main reason behind establishing PEH is to offer resettlement training for those human resources who are retired to instil understanding, skills, and experiences related to work to support them while adjusting into new life surroundings as a civilian. Along with this, establish the training department for retired members for updating them, value-adding or broadening. Especially, this agency is working under governing bodies which is selected for enhancing, managing, and organizing skill developing training for retired army employees because maximum army officers always retired within 10 to 15 years of their service. As a result, they need additional or creative skills for venturing their life within the private sector to work as civilian life. Thus, information associated with courses, funds, trainees, time, location, and other data is stored in an information system due to which PEH is designing a systematic filing system for tracking all the necessary activities. Hence, it has been understood that the main aim of the IT project is to manage the data related to retired trainees and stored significant information into information systems for overcoming the problem related to data management (Laudon & Laudon, (2015).
According to the case study, previously PEH stored the data associated with courses, trainees, finances, time, location, and other information at central locations. Now, the company wants to establish a track upon all these activities due to which PEH requisite to have a systematic information system for filling. Although, this thing is difficult to attain in the past because a maximum amount of information is handled manually with the use of forms, letters, cards, and so on. In fact, every data is input through the typing processor written by hand in order to kept in a concord filing system. Fundamentally, only detailing about trainees’ information is being computerized at the initial phase with the use of Microsoft Excel for storing the facts or figures. Furthermore, in almost 1996, the managerial team has made a plan to launch a database for handling the information linked with trainees and this system was named “Sistem Maklumat Pelatih”. This consist of specific modules like; Registration of trainee, Courses, funds for the Course, and few reports. Accordingly, the requirement of the system and its enhancement were accomplished in the house under the Information System Department directed by the Head of IT division (Mahaney & Lederer, (2010).
Project manager gives required direction to their subordinates in IT project management for ensuring that at every stage of plan and contributor as well aware that what is expected from them. At the same time, the manager is also responsible to interact with an upper level, external vendors, and clients as per project requirements. In fact, the manager is playing a major role in planning, implementing, monitoring, controlling, and ending the projects. Along with this liable for the overall scope of the project, motivation of the team, assets management, success as well as a failure of the project too (McHugh & Hogan, (2011). Some of the major things which shows that Project manager is a significant role in the success of a specific project are discussed as follows-
Alignment- According to this concept, the project manager is very much important in the success of the IT project by ensuring that deliverable is what is concerned with the client wants in order to deliver the real value. Moreover, ensuring that the architectural design of the project must be rigid in nature and appropriate in a broader picture of a client with a strategic approach (Mir & Pinnington, (2014).
Leadership- It’s the most significant role of manager and the absence of head is just like a ship without a captain because leaders are responsible to move their subordinates towards the right direction, motivate, control and clear the doubts about IT concepts.
Clear purpose- As per this element, a project manager must have a concise factor which ensures that there must be suitable planning for IT project so that it can implement efficiently by attaining the end objectives in a defined manner (Monteiro, Santos & Varajão, (2016).
IT project is taking place under three specific constraints such as; cost, time, and scope which is known as a triple constraint. In fact, these three elements are having a distinct name such as; triple constraint, Iron triangle because it represents a triangle and Project triangle which provides a clue that how much triple constraint is significant at the time of project management (Petter, DeLone & McLean, (2013). Therefore, description of these three constraints are defined as below-
Cost- This element shows the financial problem of an IT project because it requires an extreme level of investment due to which budget of the project is considered as an initial restriction.
Scope- This factor highlights the requisite task which needed to fulfill the objectives of the project.
Time- According to this, a manager needs to schedule the project in a corrective manner for reaching a conclusion and complete it in a prescribed duration.
Figure 1Triple Constraint Theory in Project Management
Ultimately, triple constraint signifies that the development of a project is influenced by its finance, deadlines, and features, as well as all these three, are interlinked with each other. For example; failure of single one resultant into the failure of the other two also like; if there is an absence enough capital for implementing IT Project of PEH then it’s not possible to complete the tasks in a given duration. At the same time presence of sufficient funds automatically encourage project manager to perform all the allocated task in a mentioned time (Sanchez & Terlizzi, (2017).
IT Project of PEH has gone through various challenges while implementing it in the workplace due to the high level of information system complexity which is not easily understood by untrained employees. Some of the major challenges of the project are discussed as follows-
Project Integration Management- Integration is all about the problem related to an accumulation of procedure which is requisite to make sure that every factor of projects is suitably coordinated. As per the case scenario, PEH is having a major issue when it’s a matter of application processing in order to attend a new training by the candidate because all the data are managed manually as well as saved by hand. As a result, data associated with trainees and courses attended by candidates are not appropriately managed because this issue has slow down the processing of admiring new applicants by an existing trainee (Seymour & Hussein, (2014).
Project Scope Management- The second problem which is identified in the IT project of PEH by Project Manager is related to infrastructure such as; hardware and software. Thus, some of the major things which show the problem related to scope are; requirement of procuring few hardware amenities and migration from previous to innovative conventional machines. Along with this, it is essential to establish a Local Area Network for smooth interaction. Thus, observation states that infrastructural facilities of PEH in an early phase of IS growth were too old as well as outdated (Smith, Bruyns & Evans, (2011).
Time Management- According to this element, the project manager is facing a problem related to duration to complete the process of information system in a given time. It’s a very broad project which requisite maximum time which might create a problem for PEH agency to perform their existing task. Thus, the absence of enough time results in the inappropriate success of information system development.
Cost Management – Capital is determined as a significant element that hinders several projects especially at the starting phase and it’s a very challenging thing that is encountered by PEH organization while IS update. They don’t have enough funds in the previous time and always minimal amount is allocated to the IT department of an organization from the overall budget of PERHEBAT (Wright & Capps, (2010).
Quality Management – As per the case study, IS development promotes network and collaboration with the Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Fund Board (LTAT). Mainly, quality is managed by updating an earlier system which is also a major challenge for project managers due to the presence of heavy complexity.
Human resource Management – The absence of computer skills was equally determined as a major difficulty in the development of an information system. Thus, the company is not having a general computer skill employee amongst the staff member team due to which they are going to fail in developing the IS.
From the above report, it has been concluded that, sociotechnical, information systems are collected by four elements such as; task, people, roles, and technology. Along with this, it is understood that the information system has developed across the global marketplace and considered a gigantic investment project for corporate firms in order to obtain a competitive advantage in this dynamic marketplace. In fact, companies believe that they need to enhance their information system to sustain their business into a competitive market by improving their business efficiency and profitability level.