The purpose of the report is to evaluate the management of the people in the organizations. The report has the purpose to critically analyze the various theoretical approaches that are used in the organization for management of employees in context of different organizational culture and different organizational structures. The report also aims at the identification of various human resource practices and the advantages of the efficient HRM practices in the context of present situations. The report has also aimed at critical evaluation of the organizational behavior in various complex organizational situations and changing external business environment.
The report is divided into six sections. The report is made by the integration of the various patch works done for the module People and Organizations. The first section of the report provides an introduction to the report. The second section of the report is based on the article reviews of two articles done on organizational culture. The first article is authored by Sharimllah Devi Ramachandran and second article is authored by Eric MacIntosh and Alison Doherty. The context of each article is evaluated. The similarities and differences between both the articles are identified. The main findings and summary analysis for both the article is done. The reflection is also done on the article review activity. The third section of the report examines the benefits of effective human resource practices for an organization. The various advantages for effective HRM practices are identified. The reflection is also done in this section to evaluate the strength, weakness and future actions for improvement. The fourth section of the report has done a case study on UK based company Osprey Insurance that employs approximately 10000 people. This section provides a report for developing HR strategies for the organization so that the savings can be managed without compulsory redundancies. The reflection is done for this section to evaluate the strengths and weakness while developing the report. The future actions for enhancing the skills are also ascertained. The fifth section of the report provides the conclusions to the report. The key learning from the report have been identified. The skills and competencies that need to be developed by the researcher are identified. The conclusion also provides the future plans that will help the researcher in enhancing the skills. The sixth section of the report provides the references used for completing the report.
Title of the first article was Organizational culture: An exploratory study comparing faculties’ perspectives within public and private universities in Malaysia authored by Sharimllah Devi Ramachandran. Title of the second article was Extending the Scope of Organizational Culture:
The External Perception of an Internal Phenomenon authored by Eric MacIntosh and Alison Doherty.
The abstract of first article on Organizational Culture by Sharimllah Devi Ramachandran provides study of organizational culture of public and private higher education institutions from faculty members’ perspectives as the aim of research. The objective of this article is to attain empirical insights on existing differences so that cross learning avenue can be attained (Ramachandran, 2010).
The abstract of second article on Organizational Culture by Eric MacIntosh and Alison Doherty states that the objective of research paper is to evaluate the external perception for organizational culture from the viewpoint of clients of a Canadian fitness industry. The paper examined the perceptions of one of Canadian Fitness Company to conduct research (MacIntosh and Doherty, 2007).
For the first article on Organizational Culture by Sharimllah Devi Ramachandran, the literature review focuses on various types of organizational culture. Various hypotheses for organizational culture have been provided to form competing values framework. The literature review has focused on comparison of various types of organizational cultures. The various organizational culture dimensions are also ascertained. The context of first article on Organizational Culture by Sharimllah Devi Ramachandran article is the analysis of organizational culture from the perspectives of faculty members for higher education institutes in Malaysia. The context of this article can be very helpful in understanding the faculty member perspectives on organizational culture for education institutes in other countries as well. The context can also be used for the analysis of organizational culture in primary and secondary education institutes from the perspectives of faculty members (Ramachandran, 2010).
For the second article on Organizational Culture by Eric MacIntosh and Alison Doherty, the literature review has focused on organizational culture and its impact on understanding work environment. The paper provides the definition and significance of organizational culture. The paper has done literature review on external perception of organizational culture. The context of second article on Organizational Culture by Eric MacIntosh and Alison Doherty is the extension of organizational culture as a measure for external perception. The research has been done for the Canadian Fitness Industry. However, the research conclusions and recommendations can also be used for the analysis of organizational culture for the external environment analysis of various sectors such as retail, automotive, food chains etc (MacIntosh and Doherty, 2007).
Both the articles have focused on the research issue of organizational culture. Both the researchers have identified various types of organizational cultures. In both the papers, the primary research activity has been conducted to reach the research recommendations and conclusions.
There were differences in the research methodology used for both the articles. For the first article on Organizational Culture by Sharimllah Devi Ramachandran, the data has been collected from faculty members of Higher education institutes in Malaysia with the aid of questionnaire. From 594 faculty members 33.9 percent were from public institutes and 52.8 from private institutes. In the second article on Organizational Culture by Eric MacIntosh and Alison Doherty one of private Fitness Corporation in Canada has been used as focal organization. The random sampling techniques were used. To ensure the geographical variations, the clubs were selected that can reflect the corporation breadth keeping in mind traveling constraint of researchers. The research respondents were above the age of 18 years. The research outline and introductory letter were provided to all the research respondents. The survey strategy was used for the collection of primary data for research. There were 113 participants in the surveys and 46 research respondents were men and 69 research respondents were women. The first research paper has focused on the organizational culture from the perspective of faculty members in higher education and the second research paper has analyzed the impact of organizational culture on external perception of organization. Hence, both the research papers have different research finding and different research implications Adrian (Haberberg and Rieple, 2001).
The key conclusions for first article on Organizational Culture by Sharimllah Devi Ramachandran has been on the four types of organizational culture i.e. clan, market, hierarchical, and adhocracy in the context of higher education systems from faculty member perspectives. The research identifies that perception of faculty members in private and public education institutes have been significantly different. The paper provides guidelines to both public and private institutes for implementation of organizational culture from faculty members’ perspective to attain the aims and goals of the educational organization (Butler, 2011).
The key conclusions from second article on Organizational Culture by Eric MacIntosh and Alison Doherty was that organizational culture is not just an internal matter for the staff and employees of the organization, instead the organizational culture also influences the external environment of organization. The research paper has also provided the relation between the various perceived values such as peak attitude, fitness, integrity with the satisfaction of clients and their intent of leaving the organization. The research also concluded that integrity is an important corporate value for customer satisfaction. Peak Attitude was also ascertained as important corporate value for client satisfaction. Hence, the organizational culture plays an important role in managing the corporate image of the organization (Ravasi and Schultz, 2006).
The patch work aided me in understanding and developing the article reviews skills. I learnt about the organizational culture and their impact on organization. I also learnt the importance of using proper references.
The article review helped me understand that I need to develop my reading skills. The use of non academic references for secondary research was one of the weaknesses.
Further Action Required
I need to develop my reading and analytical skills. I need to use the university library resources more efficiently. I should use Google scholar and other authentic references for conducting the secondary research. The reading skills can be developed by learning about smart and fast reading. Making notes of important points can aid in better analysis of research papers and presenting better article reviews.
How you Improved
I have started taking notes and have focused on using better academic references.
Effective HR practices have various benefits for the organizations; hence it is imperative to implement efficient HR practices in the organization. The HRM is the function of the organization that is responsible for the management of people and human resources in the organization. It is also essential to understand the various functions of the HRM to evaluate the benefits of effective HR practices (Butler, 2011).
There are various organizational structures that are used by organization such as functional structures, divisional structure and matrix structure. The functional organizations use task allocation, coordination and supervision as key organizational activities. In the divisional structure of the organization, the organization is divided and configured into various divisions that are self sustainable and self contained. In the matrix structure of organization, the employees of the organization are grouped on the basis of both products and functions. The matrix structure of organization aids in taking the advantage of strengths of various employees as well as making up for various weaknesses with the aid of decentralized functional forms. However, without proper and efficient HRM practices it is not possible to carry out the business activities of the organizations with various organizational structures. Also, the researchers have ascertained that efficient HRM practices help the organization in enhancing the business performance (Allen & Helms, 2002).
Armstrong (2007) said that the HRM practices have various roles in the organization such as processing of payroll, handling issues related to wages, recruitment and selection. The HRM practices also need to provide training and development to the employees, provide employee benefits, and conduct performance appraisals and to ensure that a positive work ambience is maintained in the organization. The effective HRM practices ensure that right recruitment and selection activities are done for the organization at the right time. The HRM policies provide the job description, qualities required for the job as well as the compensation that should be provided to the new recruits in the organization.
Jones and Jennifer (2008) said that the strategic HRM practices aid in doing the human resource planning for the organization effectively. The employment needs of the organization are properly assessed with the aid of human resource management. The employment activities required and industry trends along with the forecasting of global human resource planning are done by the human resource management activities. The strategic HRM also helps the organization in maintaining a stable workforce during the ups and downs of the business activities and helps in reducing the employment liabilities and employment costs. The human resource management helps the organization in employee retention and reducing the employee turnover rate.
Neely (2009) stated that the training and development activities done by HR department also help the organization in attaining competitive advantage. The employees that are not trained are likely to be less efficient and may not perform optimally. The training and development activities hone their skills and competencies so that they can deliver better performance for the organization. The training and development activities increase the productivity of the employees and also provide motivation to the employees (Seitel, 2006). The training and development activities also help the organization in enhancing the quality of products and services rendered and hence increasing the customer satisfaction as well as sales and profits. The efficient HRM practices also help the organization in performance management of the employees. The performance management in the organization has various benefits for the business of the organization. The regular and timely performance management aids in improving the performance of the employees. It provides the feedback of employees’ performance and productivity. Good performance appraisals for high performing employees motivate employees to perform better. The training needs are also identified with the help of performance management. The HRM practices also helps in team building in the organization. The strategic and efficient HRM practices foster and provides a sense of camaraderie and team spirit in the organization. The HRM also ensures that the strategic objectives of the organization are efficiently implemented. The HRM practices also aids in the integration of various stakeholders such as employees, managers, investors and customers to attain the strategic vision of the organization. The HR strategies provide opportunities for open communication between the various stakeholders so that the strategic objectives of organization can be met (Watson, 2003).
Brooks (2009) pointed that the HRM practices also have the responsibility of ensuring that the legal compliances are met by the organization. The various labor laws, company laws and other laws that are applicable on the business are adhered with the aid of human resource department. The efficient HR practices ensure that the strategic objectives of organization are aligned with legal policies. The effective HRM also aids in attaining commitment in employee employer relationship. The strategic HRM practices enable the organization to maintain a code of conduct and develop better communication channels. The effective HRM policies also help the organization in achieving the organizational goals and values. The strategic Human resource management practices are also playing an important role in the budgeting activities for the various departments of the organization. The profitability and productivity of the organization is also enhanced due to efficient and strategic HRM practices. The credibility of the organization in the external business environment is also enhanced with strategic HRM policies. The strategic HRM practice empowers the management of the organization to resolve the issues of employees and staff swiftly and efficiently. The personal development of the employees also takes place better under efficient HRM practices. The strategic HRM practices help the employees of the organization to make a better career progression. The strategic HRM practice plays an important role in increasing the job satisfaction and provides a sense of security and self esteem to the employees of the organization (Weightman, 2008).
The human resource management activities of the organization play a decisive role in deciding the compensation and benefits for the employees. The wage systems and salary systems are developed by the HR managers of the organization. Most of the HR managers use the performance based compensation for the employees of the organization and at the same time ensuring that sufficient motivation is provided to the employees financially. The rewards and recognitions are also provided by the HR managers of the organization so that the employees can meet their motivational and emotional needs and can engage with the organization more efficiently. The HRM practices are also responsible for providing the safety and health assurance to the employees of the organization. The health insurance and safety training are some of the measures implemented by the HR managers so that the safety and health of employees can be managed efficiently. The employees of companies are also provided tax incentives, recreational activities such as holidays, vacations and get together to boost the morale of employees (Stredwick, 2005).
In nutshell, good HRM practices aid in increasing the productivity. The HRM practices aid in employee motivation and employee engagement. Hence, it can be evaluated that the efficient HRM practices are quintessential for the organizations to ensure that the business operations can be carried out efficiently. The companies need to identify efficient and strategic HRM practices best suitable for their organizational structure. The HR department and the HR managers of the organization should ensure that the efficient HRM strategies are implemented in the organization.
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