Human resource management is very crucial in every organization. Human resource focus on having work done by people. International human resource management is essential in most multinational organizations. It is because the world has been reduced to a global village, and international trade is encouraged. The international organization operates through the use of assignees that are distributed worldwide. The organizations involved have put in place appropriate human resource management to ensure the smooth running of activities. These assignees also have issues in human resource management that should be studied and try to look at ways to solve them.
Apple Inc is an excellent example of such an organization. Apple Inc has profoundly invested in the global market to make sure its product is accepted and sold all over the world. The company has worked hard to ensure its growth globally. Factors that have led to the increase of Apple Inc include dynamics in international trade, human migration, globalization, human migration, and amalgamation of markets. It has enabled Apple Inc to trade in the global market.
Apple Inc is a worldwide known dealer in communication devices and other electronic devices. These include mobile phones, televisions, laptops, computers, among others. It is involved in the design of these products, manufacturing, and marketing. The company has set its operation in different places in the world. The organization has set up international human resource management for its effectiveness.
Human resource management is an activity that has been embraced by Apple Inc. to utilize its human resources effectively. Human resource management is very vital in ensuring the success of any organization that is competing at an international level. Apple uses international assignees that are distributed around the globe. Apple Inc. has to ensure the supply of a highly skilled workforce in its assignees to provide quality goods and services to its customers. Apple has ensured that an individual employee has to focus and be productive to realize the goal of the organization.
This paper will analyze the human resource by Apple Inc. and identify some of HRM issues faced by the organization. Common human resource issues include productivity retention, discipline, recruitment, training and compliance, health and safety, diversity, outsourcing, payroll, and employee inquiry, among others, as I will discuss.
Human resource manager has to focus much on ways to retain employees other than sourcing for new ones. The HR operation has to ensure that the existing talents are maintained and valued. The employees are viewed as the lifeblood of Apple Inc. They provide skills and necessary experience to ensure productivity. Apple Inc. has invested a lot of time and other resources to ensure its employees have the essential skills in ensuring maximum productivity (Hauff, 2019). The employees are assets to the organization, and the HR is tasked to safeguard these valuable assets.
Retaining employees is not an easy task. It involves proper balancing in the organization's culture, incentives and remuneration. HR has to provide its employees with a correct balance of the three without having to compromise with the interest of the company. The HR has to ensure that the agreed terms to the employees are also delivered. To maintain the employees, they have to be motivated. It is proved that not all employees are motivated by monetary rewards; therefore, it is the task of the HR to understand their employees.
HR has to ensure that the employees feel important and are identified with the organization. The HR department has to ensure equality, counseling of its employees. The HR has to ensure that staffs are retained to even allow for continuity in the workforce.
Recruitment is another challenge that the HR department is facing. The purpose of recruitment maybe for complimenting the existing workforce or replacing staff as a result of resignation, retirement, or even death. HR faces difficulty in finding a person with the right blend of skills, motivation, and personality, especially when there is a lot of candidates. The recruitment process is to be conducted very effectively (Sheehan, 2019). HR receives a lot of applications, so the details have to be appropriately recorded for review and comparison.
Apple Inc uses an international assignment that has three phases. The first phase is termed as the pre-assignment stage. It is at this stage that employees are deployed. The employees have to be selected appropriately and prepared for deployment. The second phase is the actual assignment. Since Apple is an international organization, its employees must migrate to the countries assigned. This stage ensures that the deployed employees settle in the country assigned to. They are referred to as expatriates. The third phase is known as the post-assignment, commonly referred to as repatriates.
During the recruitment of expatriates, Apple Inc HR has to put into consideration the personal and intrapersonal characteristics of individuals. Employees in Apple Inc are deployed internationally. It is, therefore, a necessity to ensure that the measures are taken to ensure the cross-cultural and interpersonal ability for persons. It possesses a difficult task to the HR department in managing expatriates and therefore has to rely mainly on a personal recommendation from its employees.
The recommendations from employees to be selected to expatriates are from the line managers in Apple Inc companies. The recruitment process is a challenge that faces not only Apple alone but also other organizations.
The HR department is also involved in checking and ensuring productivity levels of employees. It provides the organization is running effectively to ensure the competitiveness of its products. It is the responsibility of HR to know why productivity is low. The HR has to make a proper investigation on this matter to see if it is as a result of poor working activities or lack of resources to enable the employees to perform their tasks.
HR has to monitor productivity through a Time and motion study of the employees. It is aimed at defining the role of each employee in the organization. It simply establishes the person who does a task and how they do it. It answers the question of who, what, how. The study is well analyzed, and the conclusion made to ensure potential ways of gaining efficiency (Holland, 2019). It also helps in capital investment for the future to increase productivity and improve conditions.
Apple Inc is to ensure its products are up to standard and remain competitive in the market. It ranges from the design of products, process design, layout design, and job design location strategy, among others. All these tasks are to be performed by people and narrow down to the HR department. The department has to ensure the supply of qualified staff with relevant experience to ensure high productivity.
HR should use an HR software platform where the HR team and line production management will be storing information to do the Time and Motion study. The performance of expatriates is a common element in international human resource management. Several criteria have to be put in place for accessing these expatriates. These criteria include competition on the assignment given, the performance of the duty and how the expatriate is adjusting to the cross-culture on the region assigned. The named criteria apply must to all Apple Inc employees regardless of the role given.
HR has to assess foreign assignment competition. Human resource has to evaluate the result of tasks assigned to expatriate and repatriates. When one completes the international assignment given, the criteria is termed as a success. There are cases where expatriates fail to complete the assigned task, therefore, resulting in a premature termination, which is a failure.it can also occur when the expatriate wants to get a transfer to the home country.
Training is an integral part of employee development. It is in terms of education as well as measures to continue getting the best from the workforce. Most role of employees at Apple Inc. requires training and certification. It is the work of human resources to ensure the people employed have met the educational qualification. Apple Inc. is known to be among the organizations that use the best students from universities around the globe. HR has to ensure that there is a continuous development of the workforce to ensure productivity.
It is the responsibility of employees to follow up on their professional certification. HR has to ensure the employees are certified, especially when the activities of the organization depends on the certification of its employees (Fernandes, 2018). Apple Inc has to offer schedule and cater to the fees of its employees as they undergo training. The organization is in partnership with most universities to ensure that its employees are well trained. HR has to schedule employee training either as a corporate or as an individual, depending on the skills needed to be developed.
The HR department has to ensure that every individual in the organization has received a mandatory induction training. Training of staff is also crucial due to changes in technology and how things are done. The team has to be equipped with what is needed to make the organization meet its goal. Apple Inc. has to ensure its employees attend seminars and exhibitions. Training and experience are also used as a promotion tool by the HR department.
HR faces a challenge in ensuring all the staff is well trained and up to the task. Some teams may be rigid and not willing to change on their ways of doing tasks. A new situation may also pose a challenge to HR in determining the training that staff should undertake. The training is expensive also and might be taking the time that could otherwise be used in production. The HR must ensure the existence of a workforce that complies with the task given.
It is the legal responsibility of HR to have a record of health and safety for its staff. It is also in line with the record of trade unions membership and the professional qualification of its employees. HR has to ensure the employees are safe at work. The health and safety record also provides the organization meets its legal obligation. The organization also has to make sure that its activities do not affect the public.
When there is a question in health and safety, the human resource produces the records to show the company has done its part. Failure to provide these documents as proof may risk a company to fines and ramifications (Shittu, 2017). The HR has to ensure an accurate record of health and safety, as well as other qualifications to provide the activities of the organization, are safe. It is also essential to record any safety training an employee might have undergone to produce when a dispute arises in the future.
HR is also to assess the health and safety of its employees. It also includes making sure that employees are not overworked at the same time, remain productive to the organization. Effectively manage health and safety requires the implementation of adequate protective and preventive measures. The human resource has to lay down standards on bullying, fire measures, first aid, and risk assessments.
Apple Inc. has to ensure it operates in accordance also with the health and safety policies laid down by different countries where its assignees are located. The HR has to ensure that the employees are working in workshops with proper ventilation, have access to clean water and adequate hygiene.
The assignees for Apple Inc. are located in different countries of the world. The countries have different cultural diversities, and this poses a challenge to the expatriates. Any organization has to have policies concerning diversity. HR, from time to time, has to show commitment to diversity and be at the forefront in fighting discrimination. An organization is full of diversities ranging from different cultures, races, gender, religion, academic qualification, and also trice. The human resource department has to come up with measures that will allow these people to work together to realize the organization's goals. HR has to ensure there is no discrimination among the employees. HR is required to show progress towards reducing discrimination.
HR should keep demographic data for the workforce to ensure its diversity is known. Discrimination can cut deep to the extent of affecting the productivity of an individual hence a drop in overall productivity. The HR has to ensure no one is harassed, and the task is distributed based on the qualifications and not based on diversity (Sims, 2019). Apple Inc. also takes the issue of diversity seriously. It is wise to send an expatriate to an international assignment where some of his cultures match with the locals. It also offers pre-departure training to its expatriates to ensure they are introduced to the way of life in the assigned country and given necessary survival skills.
Disciplinary issues must always arise in the workplace. It is the responsibility of HR to help solve any disciplinary incident that might arise. The actions taken by the HR must be satisfactory to the employer and also to the employee. Disciplinary cases require hard evidence, where the human resource department will be needed to provide statements and supporting records. The cases have to be resolved legally and in an ethical manner. This process is time-consuming as it requires proper investigations.
There is a need for HR to put a clear record of any indiscipline issues. The file should include the minutes of the meeting held concerning the matter, an official letter from the employer, a letter from a trade union representative, and an employee’s letter (Lussier, 2019). These documents are essential during follow-up activities. The record also acts as an agreement between the parties involved.
Disciplinary issues include late coming, use of abusive words, mistreating of fellow workers, boycotting, and fighting. Apple Inc. has rules that guide the HR in the process of dealing with indiscipline. Some indiscipline cases can even lead to dismissal from work. HR has to ensure a workforce that has etiquette.
HR also offers counseling activity to the employee. It provides such services to ensure the mental health of the employees. Counseling is made on issues of family relationships, substance abuse, and addictions. It also couches personnel on methods of handling pressure.
The workforce of an organization can sometimes be augmented using freelancers and contract. It offers the company with opportunities to enjoy services from people without permanently hiring them. The method is recommended when the task to be handled, specialized experts. The job may only take place for a short period; therefore, no need to have permanent workers on the same.
Outsourcing poses a challenge that the HR must ensure the freelancer or contractor has met international standards (Semeiko, 2019). The contractor must hold the relevant qualification to perform their task. The HR has to ensure also that the contractor has gone through induction training in the company. The organization has to ensure that the contractor is qualified and can supply service for the task at hand. The process of choosing a suitable contractor also is an HRM issue.
Apple Inc. has to outsource contractors to offer short term activities. It also hires consultants to provide advisory to the production team. The HR is to keep data of these contractors and consultants to re-hire them in the future.
Payroll is developed by both the HR department and the accounts department. They have to work hand in hand to ensure accurate payment of staff. The human resource department maintains records containing benefits, salary, attachment of earnings, and bonuses (Kinnie, 2019). The accounting department makes the actual payments of employees. This can lead to disconnect making payment to run late and inaccurate amounts payment.
Delay in payroll reduces the morale of the employees. HR should ensure the workers are paid on time and the correct amount. The human resource and accounting departments should be connected electronically such that changes made on the HR payment record will reflect in the accounts. HR is experiencing a lot of workloads. HR has to ensure fair compensation for the services provided by workers.
The human resource department provides the interface between the company and the employer and the employees. The employees always take their inquiries concerning employments to the HR department. The process is time-consuming, and good record-keeping has to be put in place (Hamad, 2019). This activity makes the HR department very busy, including tracing payment details, contract specifications, to a point been unable to focus on other tasks.
The HR department should come up with a dedicated system that has centralized data for easy tracking and retrieval. It will reduce the time taken to answer queries. Apple Inc. solved the issue by offering a more advanced system that allows for self-service to certain types of questions from employees. It will enable employees to answer basic queries just by themselves.
It is noted that the discussed HRM issues affect not only Apple Inc. but also other organizations. Organizations are working to see they harmonize the activities of the HR to ensure a good supply of workforce to increase productivity. HRM is focused on improving the workforce through continuous development and training. Employees should be in front line also to ensure productivity, discipline, health, and safety, among other activities that will allow the smooth running of the organization. The HR department is crucial in an organization. It is the backbone of all the workforce in an organization, from permanent workers to freelancers and contractors. The HR is at the forefront to ensure the employer has received qualified labor for quality production. Apple Inc. seemed to have an excellent international HRM system to produce quality goods that remain competitive in the global market.
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