In the modern world. the advanced technologies and facilities have allowed a large number of people to develop a desire to mox'e to the cities. The desires of people are so effective that it is estimated that by 2050 near about 70% of total world's population will be residing in the cities. The purpose of this assignment is to determine the impacts of living in cities and to ex'aluate the theories that are required to promote the health care. This assignment will also observe the application of the theories in cities and will shed light on the success and the sustainability of the theories.
Impact of living in cities and evaluation of health promotion theories
In today‘s world it cannot be denied that living in cities like London and Manchester creates a lot of opportunities for the individuals and the professionals. As per Albino et al. (2015), the cities are becoming more appealing and beautiful in order to attract more people and tourists to it. Hosever, besides developing the attractiveness, London and Manchester have intended to enhance the healthcare facilities in order to provide the citizen with proper care. As per Giles et al. (2016), residing in the cities could have both positive and negative impact and it is important to determine its effect on the people’s health, The risk of in,jury death is 20% higher in the countryside than that of cities, According to Johnson and Bradbury (2015), along with the rise in the population in the cities the suicide rates will fall, while the traffic accident is likely to increase with the rise in population, The Manchester provides better environment and facilities to enhance the health of the people. However, living in the London or Manchester is not always shining as it seems. Living in London or Manchester also possesses some negative impacts. As per Jolley (2014), it has been noticed that people living in the London or Manchester face more environmental stresses than the people living in the countryside. Both Wndon and Manchester has largely promoted the healthcare through the organisations like Manchester Healthcare Centre and London North West University Healthcare, The Manchester Healthcare Centre and the London North West University Healthcare has adopted Health Promotion through Ecological Model. Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory (manchesterhcc.com. 2018), According to Langer ci nf. (2015), the adoption of the enhanced models has helped the healthcare as well hS thC clties to improve their health promotion. The Ecological Model has
multiple influences on the human health that includes the Indii’idiial factors. Intcrpcrsonal factors, Organisational factors and Community factors. The indie idual factors influence the infonnation, trio» ledge and personality of an indie idual The Interpersonal factors aIIo» an indii’idiial to intcract ii’ith other pcoplc thnt proi’idc social know lcdgc as is cll as crcatc hurdles that influence a healthy behai iour The Organisational factors detennine rules. teclmiques. rcgiilntions. information. proccsscs that cnconragc the hcalthy bchai’iours As per Tclljohann er al (2015). the Community factors influencc thc formal as »’cll as thc informal know lcdgc among the people that may limits or dci elop the healthy behai iours The Traiistlieoretical Model incliidcs fii’c siagcs of trcatinent. Prccontcinplation. Contemplation. Preparation. Action and Maintenance Tlic Preconteinplation stagc is obseo ed i lien there is no nced of taking any action Contemplation stage is obseri ed » hen there is nced to take action or a plan is ink old ed to do so Thc Preparation stagc cncouragcs thc neccssitj to takc action and alrcad; some actions arc takcii The Action stage is introduced » hen tlic behai iour has changed tcinporarily. Thc Maintcnancc siagc is obscri’cd ix’hen the bchai’iour has changcd pcnnanently for a long-tcrin (Ncirotti e/ o/. 2014). Thc Social Cognitii’c Thcoy’ influcnces thc bchai’ioiir of ;i pcrson through Self-efficiency. Behavioural Capability, Expectations, Observational Leeming and Reinforccincnt. Thc Sclf-cfficicncj dci’clops a bclicf ii ithin thc indix’idiials that thci hai’c control and are able to execute their own behai iour As per Loss ct of. (2014), the Behav ioural Capability allow s the indii’iduals to dcvelop the undcrstanding and skill in ordcr to change the bchai’ioiir. Thc Expcctations dctcnnines thc rcsiilt of thc change in bchas’iour and its impact on people’s health The Obseri atioiial Learning is the process of ii etching and learning the impact of other’s changed behai’ioiirs (Capuzzi and Siaiiffcr. 2016) The Rcinforceinent proccss influences thc rcii ard sj steln and inccntii’es that accelerate the behai’ioural changc
Application of the health promotion theories
In London and Manchester, the healthcare organisations like Manchester Healthcare Centre and London North West Unit ersity Healthcare have adopted several strategies to promote the healthcare. How ei’er. proper application of these theories is necessary in order to proi’ide proper proiiiotion of the health As per Hockenbein, ct u/. (2016). the Ecological Model. Transtheoretical Model. and Social Cognitive Theos have allou ed the healthcare of UK to
cnhancc their promotion policies. The Ecological Model is a useful policy for dctcrmining the health problems as well as to influence a healthy life and » Illness. The Manchester Healthcare Centre and the London Nonh West Unit ersitv Healthcare has adopted the Ecological iiiodel as it cncouragcs all the factors that affect the hcalth behai iours (lrnv h,nhs.uL. 2018) Both the Healthcare has applied the Ecological model in promoting the Health Education A» areness Research Tcam popularly known as Projcct HEART Thc Ecological modcl has also cncouragcd Colorectal Canccr Control Program (C RCCP) in Manchcstcr Hcalthcarc Ccntrc as ii cll as London Nonh West Unit ersity Healthcare. The Ecological model has been also applied iii dcsigning the Rural Hcalth Nctii ork and Coalition Toolkits As per Holdcn (2010). it is duc to the application of the Ecological model that thc liealtlicarc is ablc to eniiance and encouragc different health promotion programs. The Manchester Healthcare Centre has applied thc Trnnsthcorctical Modcl in order to proi’idc information on Michigan's Hcalthi Workplaces Resource Guide. The information includcs the kno» Icdge about different stages of change Thc application of Transthcorctical Model has also allo» cd the Hcalthcarc to introduce a self-hclp cigarcttc quitting policy called Call it Quit Thc Transthcoretical Modcl has allo»’cd the Manchester Healthcare in health proiiiotion and prci enting discases. changing bcliai iours, protccting thc population. The London North West Unii’crsiti Hcalthcarc has adopted thc Social Cognitii e Tlieon to fi ght HIV/AIDS 9 Inwli mrs.uk. 201S) As per Litinan (20 l6). the application of the Social Cognitive Thcoy has allot ed the London Healthcare to enhance their skills and dci’clop a healthy lifc among its scrs’icc users The application Social Cognitix’c Tlieon by the London North West Unit ersitv Healthcare has allow ed them to guide the process of bchai’ioiir change propcrly. Thc application of thc Social Cognitii’e Theon’ has also hclped the hcalthcare in obsein’ing the impacts of social factors on health and an indix’idual's experience on changing betray iours As per Neirotti ct o/ (2014), the application of modern theories in modcrn cities likc London and Manchester are likely to increasc thcir adi’anccment in health proiiiotion.
Success and sustainability of the health promotion theories
The success and the sustainability of the health promotion theories depend upon the Healthcare and the adi’ancement of the cities. London and Manchester are both considered to be the
dci’cloping cities for enhancing hcalthcarc facilities (Sallnow e/ n/, 2010), Hence. thc hcalthcarc organisations such as M‹inchc•stc•r Hc•althc‹irc• C‹•ntre ‹incl Lun‹lon N‹›rtli test Univc•rsity H‹althc‹irc• hat e been able to promote the health theories » ith high success and sustainability (inanchcstcrhcc.coin. 2G18) As pcr Warin er n/ (2Gl 5). in ordcr to dctcnnine thc sustainability of a theon: it needs to be compared » ith other theories and healthcare. Thus, to justify the sustainability and success of Ecological Modcl. Transthcorctical Modcl. and Social Cognitix’c Thcon it is ncccssan to compare its cffcctix’cncss in both thc hcalthcarc. Thc Ecological Models are adopted in both Manchester Healthcare and London North West Healthcare » itli the similar objcctii’c of proi’iding a fraincii ork for undcrsianding the health issucs and ii cllbcing. Thc succcss and sustninabilitv of the iiiodel can bc judgcd by tlic Healthy People 2020 fraiiie» ork. It declares the success of the Ecological Modcl in the promotion of health and prc enting diseases. The Transthcorctical Modcl has bccn adoptcd b; the Manchestcr Hcalthcarc and thc Social Cognitii e Tlieorr has bcen adopted by the London North West Healtlicarc (line h.nhs uk, 2018). In Manchcster. thc model has short n its sustainability and siicccss in changing thc bchai’ioiirs of thc pcoplc through thc stagcs of changc In London. thc Social Cognitii’c Thcori has achici’cd great success and sustainability through its fight against the HIV. Therefore, both the models posscss high siicccss and sustainability ratc in Manchestcr as ii’cll as in London in promoting thc health As per Salaxar ct o/ (2015). the success and sustainability of the theories and the model can be determined by obsco ing its effect on thc population and their bcliaviours
The proper promotion of the health is the responsibility that the cities and the healthcare intend to possess on the people. Along u ith the dei’elopment of technologies the healthcare must develop neu strategies in order entrance their care policies. This assignment has detennined the impact of the living in cities and has ei’aliiated different theories and models adopted in proiiioting the health. The assignment has also shed lights on the application of the theories and models in proitioting health Lastly, the assignment has determined the success and sustainability of the theories and models.
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