In the modern world, the advanced technologies and facilities have allowed a large number of people to develop a desire to move to the cities. The desires of people are so effective that it is estimated that by 2050 near about 70% of total world's population will be residing in the cities. The purpose of this assignment is to determine the impacts of living in cities and to evaluate the theories that are required to promote the health care. This assignment will also observe the application of the theories in cities and will shed light on the success and the sustainability of the theories.
Impact of living in cities and evaluation of health promotion theories
In today’s world it cannot be denied that living in cities like London and Manchester creates a lot of opportunities for the individuals and the professionals. As per Albino et al. (2015), the cities are becoming more appealing and beautiful in order to attract more people and tourists to it. However, besides developing the attractiveness, London and Manchester have intended to enhance the healthcare facilities in order to provide the citizen with proper care. As per Giles et al. (2016), residing in the cities could have both positive and negative impact and it is important to determine its effect on the people’s health. The risk of injury death is 20% higher in the countryside than that of cities. According to Johnson and Bradbury (2015), along with the rise in the population in the cities the suicide rates will fall, while the traffic accident is likely to increase with the rise in population. The Manchester provides better environment and facilities to enhance the health of the people. However, living in the London or Manchester is not always shining as it seems. Living in London or Manchester also possesses some negative impacts. As per Jolley (2014), it has been noticed that people living in the London or Manchester face more environmental stresses than the people living in the countryside. Both London and Manchester has largely promoted the healthcare through the organisations like Manchester Healthcare Centre and London North West University Healthcare. The Manchester Healthcare Centre and the London North West University Healthcare has adopted Health Promotion through Ecological Model, Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory (manchesterhcc.com, 2018). According to Langer et al. (2015), the adoption of the enhanced models has helped the healthcare as well as the cities to improve their health promotion. The Ecological Model has multiple influences on the human health that includes the Individual factors, Interpersonal factors, Organisational factors and Community factors. The individual factors influence the information, knowledge and personality of an individual. The Interpersonal factors allow an individual to interact with other people that provide social knowledge as well as create hurdles that influence a healthy behaviour. The Organisational factors determine rules, techniques, regulations, information, processes that encourage the healthy behaviours. As per Telljohann et al. (2015), the Community factors influence the formal as well as the informal knowledge among the people that may limit or develop the healthy behaviours. The Transtheoretical Model includes five stages of treatment, Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action and Maintenance. The Precontemplation stage is observed when there is no need of taking any action. Contemplation stage is observed when there is need to take action or a plan is involved to do so. The Preparation stage encourages the necessity to take action and already some actions are taken. The Action stage is introduced when the behaviour has changed temporarily. The Maintenance stage is observed when the behaviour has changed permanently for a long-term (Neirotti et al. 2014). The Social Cognitive Theory influences the behaviour of a person through Self-efficiency, Behavioural Capability, Expectations, Observational Learning and Reinforcement. The Self-efficiency develops a belief within the individuals that they have control and are able to execute their own behaviour. As per Loss et al. (2014), the Behavioural Capability allows the individuals to develop the understanding and skill in order to change the behaviour. The Expectations determines the result of the change in behaviour and its impact on people’s health. The Observational Learning is the process of watching and learning the impact of other’s changed behaviours (Capuzzi and Stauffer, 2016). The Reinforcement process influences the reward system and incentives that accelerate the behavioural change.
Application of the health promotion theories
In London and Manchester, the healthcare organisations like Manchester Healthcare Centre and London North West University Healthcare have adopted several strategies to promote the healthcare. However, proper application of these theories is necessary in order to provide proper promotion of the health. As per Hockenberry et al. (2016), the Ecological Model, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Cognitive Theory have allowed the healthcare of UK to enhance their promotion policies. The Ecological Model is a useful policy for determining the health problems as well as to influence a healthy life and wellness. The Manchester Healthcare Centre and the London North West University Healthcare has adopted the Ecological model as it encourages all the factors that affect the health behaviours (lnwh.nhs.uk, 2018). Both the Healthcare has applied the Ecological model in promoting the Health Education Awareness Research Team popularly known as Project HEART. The Ecological model has also encouraged Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) in Manchester Healthcare Centre as well as London North West University Healthcare. The Ecological model has been also applied in designing the Rural Health Network and Coalition Toolkits. As per Holden (2016), it is due to the application of the Ecological model that the healthcare is able to enhance and encourage different health promotion programs. The Manchester Healthcare Centre has applied the Transtheoretical Model in order to provide information on Michigan's Healthy Workplaces Resource Guide. The information includes the knowledge about different stages of change. The application of Transtheoretical Model has also allowed the Healthcare to introduce a self-help cigarette quitting policy called Call it Quit. The Transtheoretical Model has allowed the Manchester Healthcare in health promotion and preventing diseases, changing behaviours, protecting the population. The London North West University Healthcare has adopted the Social Cognitive Theory to fight HIV/AIDS 9 lnwh.nhs.uk, 2018). As per Litman (2016), the application of the Social Cognitive Theory has allowed the London Healthcare to enhance their skills and develop a healthy life among its service users. The application Social Cognitive Theory by the London North West University Healthcare has allowed them to guide the process of behaviour change properly. The application of the Social Cognitive Theory has also helped the healthcare in observing the impacts of social factors on health and an individual's experience on changing behaviours. As per Neirotti et al. (2014), the application of modern theories in modern cities like London and Manchester are likely to increase their advancement in health promotion.
Success and sustainability of the health promotion theories
The success and the sustainability of the health promotion theories depend upon the Healthcare and the advancement of the cities. London and Manchester are both considered to be the developing cities for enhancing healthcare facilities (Sallnow et al. 2016). Hence, the healthcare organisations such as Manchester Healthcare Centre and London North West University Healthcare have been able to promote the health theories with high success and sustainability (manchesterhcc.com, 2018). As per Warin et al. (2015), in order to determine the sustainability of a theory; it needs to be compared with other theories and healthcare. Thus, to justify the sustainability and success of Ecological Model, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Cognitive Theory it is necessary to compare its effectiveness in both the healthcare. The Ecological Models are adopted in both Manchester Healthcare and London North West Healthcare with the similar objective of providing a framework for understanding the health issues and wellbeing. The success and sustainability of the model can be judged by the Healthy People 2020 framework. It declares the success of the Ecological Model in the promotion of health and preventing diseases. The Transtheoretical Model has been adopted by the Manchester Healthcare and the Social Cognitive Theory has been adopted by the London North West Healthcare (lnwh.nhs.uk, 2018). In Manchester, the model has shown its sustainability and success in changing the behaviours of the people through the stages of change. In London, the Social Cognitive Theory has achieved great success and sustainability through its fight against the HIV. Therefore, both the models possess high success and sustainability rate in Manchester as well as in London in promoting the health. As per Salazar et al. (2015), the success and sustainability of the theories and the model can be determined by observing its effect on the population and their behaviours.
The proper promotion of the health is the responsibility that the cities and the healthcare intend to possess on the people. Along with the development of technologies the healthcare must develop new strategies in order enhance their care policies. This assignment has determined the impact of the living in cities and has evaluated different theories and models adopted in promoting the health. The assignment has also shed lights on the application of the theories and models in promoting health. Lastly, the assignment has determined the success and sustainability of the theories and models.
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