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    DOCTORS TO DEVELOPING

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    DOCTORS TO DEVELOPING


    MIGRATION OF DOCTORS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Introduction 
    Migration of service provider to develop countries increased their execution level related to health care practice. In this study, the negative effects and positive effects of this migration are included. Different push and pull factors are included which helps to develop the working area of the practitioners. UK is a recipient country and recruits doctors from the commonwealth. This recruitment helps to expand their service in healthcare and rapid growth in different treatment. Due to lack of insufficient work area and wages service provider migrates to developed countries. The immigration of doctors are very high than the emigrants of practitioners in their respective countries or to poor or developing countries. Systematic work area increases the opportunity of the service provider in their career. Perfect training increases their performance level and wages. Developed countries warmly welcome the migrants as they increase the economic condition of the country. Poor countries pay wages to the trained practitioners and this also increases rate of migrants to developed countries. This study gives an idea about differences between the practitioners in developed countries and in developing countries. The impact related to loss of service practice to poor countries than the developed countries are also included. 
    The thesis statement of the study is to identify the reason behind migration of service provider from developing countries to developed countries. 
    Discussion
    Impact of migration 
    Practitioners migrate to developed countries due to lack of proper wages, insufficient working environment and low skills. William (1998) demonstrated that advanced economics helps the practitioners to perform their jobs smoothly and increases their execution level. Tax revenue from the skilled immigrants increased their service in social care and increases their service user satisfaction. This satisfaction of user increases identification of the health care and profit margin in developed countries. Satisfaction of service user increases when right diagnosis and quick treatment is performed by the health officials in a health care.
    Demographic issues:
    Age structure:
    Robert Rowthorn (2008) illustrated that longer life expectancy and lower birth rate increases the supporting cost. Immigrants help to increase the number of service provider in developed countries and they indirectly creates a positive effect on age structure of developed countries in all over the world. 
    Temporary migration:
    This migration helps the developed countries to rejuvenate it without a long term effect on population growth. Skill migrants develop their skill without affecting the original service provider in the social care. Temporary migrants increase the economic condition of the developed countries due to less incentive given to them.
    Measurement issues:
    Emigration:
    The emigration increases the global productivity. Dublin (2013) claimed that top rank practitioners increase their skills and techniques in a social care. This increases the service user satisfaction and identification of the social care. The negative issues of the emigration included:
    Local residents outflow, population growth, increases the housing cost, loss of the amenities.
    Robert Rowthorn (2008) opined that racial change diminishes the traditional culture of the place and increases the crowd to cheaper localities. This variation hampered the original location of the country people.  Departure of older people reduces the cost of public expenditure related to health care. 
    Dynamic and static approaches:
    Bradby (2014) mentioned that static approaches increase the taxpayers for the welfare of the countries. Government can easily deal with the migrants and gives them adequate advantages to live in their country.  They can easily use the goods of the country and total cost is easily predicted by the government. Dynamic migrants improve the skill in health care. The government takes more taxes from them but future attitude of them is unpredicted by government. Cost of defence is increased and population of the country is affected. Dublin (2013) commented that dynamic migrants increased disturbance related to public goods of the developed countries. 
    Immigrants:
    A static immigrant increases the rate of tax payers in the developed country. These migrants follow the rules and regulation of the government and act accordingly in order to adjust in new place easily. However these static immigrants delocalised the local people and hampered the tradition of the developed countries. Bradby (2014) stated that more rate of immigrants increase the use of public goods than its production. Thus, the government of the developed countries take all the necessary steps in order to create a balance between the input and output of the public goods. This balance increases the production level of the developed countries and decreases the unemployment issues. Henderson & Tulloch (2014) mentioned that more use of public goods means more production and workers are needed. This increase the employment in developed countries. A static immigrant increases the employment rate and decreases the old age people rate in developed countries. Replacement of jobs from the common people to migrants increases the unemployment issues of local in the countries.
    A dynamic immigrant expands the skills related to technology and service. They help to advance the rate of service to their service user. Brush & Sochalski (2017) claimed that this advanced or new procedure increases the service user satisfaction. The new procedures related to service in the social care helps to diagnose the disease correctly and quick treatment of the disease increases the recognition of the social care. Nevertheless, government of developed countries cannot establish a balance related to production rate and its use. Hagopian et al. (2014) argued that dynamic migrants have to give more tax in order to enjoy living in the new countries for a short period time. They enhance the skills but no replacement of jobs of local people is performed by them. This increases skill, economic condition of the country and satisfaction of the service user.  
    Government solvency:
    Bradby (2014) demonstrated that government of developing countries perform all the necessary steps in order to maintain a balance between the input and output of public goods and localisation issues. In order to maintain a discipline in the community the government sets different agents in order to deal with the negative issues in the society. Rather proper maintenance of goods and healthy life for both the migrants and the local people increases the interaction and social culture. Hagopian et al. (2014) demonstrated that government warmly welcome migrants to improve the economic condition and service policy of the country. This advanced policy increases the healthcare service to their user and also increases the identification in global market. This identification in global market increases the economic condition of the country. 
    Health care impact related to migration of practitioners 
    Robert Rowthorn (2008) stated that migrated practitioners in developed countries help them to solve their negative issues related to social, political and economic conditions of the countries. This modified rules and regulation increases the economic condition and skill of service to health care in that country.  Government warmly welcomed the skilled health professional to improve their techniques, skills and combination of technology with their health care. Migrants from the poor or developing countries practice their service in developed countries in order to improve their conduct level and creativity. 
    William (1998) mentioned that the developed countries increases the lifestyle of the migrants and provides them better facilities and working environment. There are push and pull factors which explains about the reason of why the service provider migrates to develop countries. Push factors deals with the negative impacts of poor and developed countries. Some of them are lack of the necessary service, high unemployment, low wages, bad housing, career prospects is very low, violence in health care. Pull factors deals with the positive factors of healthcare in the social carte. The positive factors are as such Low unemployment, good services, career prospects is very high, better remuneration, better working environment, job satisfaction is very high
    Mutual benefits:
    Three groups are benefitted due to migration of the skilled service provider from the poor or developing countries to developed countries. First group is the migrants who get better working environment than their native countries. The better working condition increases their creativity and conduct level. Bradby (2014) stated that developed countries health care professionals can increase their skill by the help of migrant’s professionals. A skilled professional increases the identification of the health sector and increases their conduct. This advanced conduct level helps the social care to perform right diagnosis of disease and the quick treatment increases the positive feedback of the service user. The service user satisfaction increases the health care performance in quality service along with their profit margin. Last group is the government of developed countries is benefitted due to increases in economic conditions and quality service of the practitioners in social care.
    Ethics related to global medicine:
    Immigration policy decreases the freedom of the immigrants to move freely in the developed countries. This decreases the service provider’s mental condition and affects their performance related to quality service in health care. Inhibition of free riding helps the immigrants to hide their emotions and issues related to their living in developed countries. This rule of developed countries related to free riding is against the rules of equality and principles related to justice. Brown (2016) commented that this practice in developed countries help the migrants to go back to their own countries. Thus, the developed countries health care improvement in quality service is diminished.  The poor countries or donor countries need to improve their working environment. This improved practice increases the emigrants in poor countries and increases their quality service. Better service helps to improve the poor countries serviced by the service providers. Hagopian et al. (2014) mentioned that donor government necessary steps related to the improvements in health care working environment decreases the migration rate of practitioners. Modified government rules diminish the negative issues related to service and internal environment of social care. 
    Poor or developing countries government need to appoint agents in order to decreases the negative issues in community and maintain a discipline in working area. The agents need to be very much careful about the basic rights of the citizens to prevent the chaotic behaviour in the community. More trainers are required to train the service providers according to their conduct level and knowledge. The strategy of the social care is needed to be very much clear to lower hierarchy in order to perform the task perfectly. The perfect strategy and subdivision of task by management of social care increases their service user positive feedback and identification in recent market. Kingma (2017) commented that the quality service in poor or developing countries diminish the migrants rate and increases the emigrants rate. This increase of emigrants’ number helps to improve the economic conditions of the poor and developing countries along with their service quality to service user.
    Future trends of migration 
    Health professionals migrate to developed countries in order to get better prospects in their career. This better opportunity increases the migrant’s rate and diminishes the emigrant’s rate. Bach (2015) stated that if the mobility of service provider is temporary then it is advantageous to the developing countries. Trained professionals from developed countries are highly skilled and can easily increase the service quality in the poor or developed countries.  According to Ravenstein's law, temporary migration increases the culture of both the developed and developing countries. William (1998) illustrated that the temporary migration decreases the gap between the poor and developed countries related to culture, economic conditions, working environment and so on.  Age selective migration increases the economic condition of the developed countries along with the working area of social sector. The developed countries provide all opportunities and training to the migrants, which help to expand their conduct level in health care. Migration is the essential component to increase social service identification in global market. Robert Rowthorn (2008) opined that best quality service is given to service user when there is presence of perfect environment in health care. Systematic health care means well-trained practitioners, perfect strategy created by the health care management, subdivision of task related to practitioner’s performance and knowledge, optimum use of resources in the health care. Management team of social care performs adequate research related to the organization's macro and micro factors. This research diminishes the governmental penalties of the social care. 
    Gravity model focuses on the migration analysis of the health professionals. Kingma (2017) stated that migration is directly proportional to the opportunity and career growth of service provider. More career growth attracts more skilled health practitioners to developed countries. According to NHS report, the rate of migrants to developed countries is diminished in recent year than the last two years. This proves that the government of developing and poor countries takes necessary steps to prevent immigration of practitioners. This prevention diminishes the service provider obstacle in poor countries related to their career. Lack of open freedom rule also diminishes the migrants to move to developed countries in recent years. Temporary practitioners of developed countries improve their ability and skills and this helps the poor countries health care to get a well trained practitioners. 
    Developed countries warmly welcome the migrants and provide them all the opportunities to improve their conduct level. However, in recent years the developing countries government and health care takes all the essential steps to increase the rate immigrants than the emigrants. Health professionals get all the resources and training in order to raise their level in quality service. Best quality service increases the positive feedback of the service user. Bach (2015) mentioned that migration volume depends on the economy fluctuations of the countries. The rate of migration and emigration depends on the progress of the country and the states. Therefore, the developing countries improvement in health care diminishes the migrant’s rate. 
    Lee’s model stated a set of demerits and merits related to migration of the health professionals. Merits of migration improve the economic condition of developed countries. The rate of increased migration improves the social culture and a skilled professional improves the performance level of local practitioners in social care. Migrants pay extra charge to government due to their practice and career growth in developed countries. Demerits of Lee’s model are migrants delocalised the common citizen and diminishes the traditional culture of developed countries.  William (1998) has illustrated that unemployment of common people increases due to migrants in developed countries. Decision to migrate by the migrants is never all time rational. Input of the public goods is less than the output of goods in developed countries. This imbalance of public goods increases chaotic behaviour in the community. Government of developed countries set different agents in order to solve the negative issues and maintain discipline in the community as well as in the health care. Thus, the government of developed countries prefer temporary migrants than the static migrants. 
    Conclusion 
    Health organization of developed countries provides scope to the migrants to progress their career in quality service health care.  Perfect training is given to the migrants in order to increase their creativity and conduct level. Lack of essential resources and opportunities health practitioners leave their native place and migrated to developed countries. Poor or developing countries does not have adequate infrastructure which help the professionals to get perfect training to improve their skills in health care. Different models are concluded which defines about the reason of migrant’s attraction to developed countries.  Centralised and organised systems of health care in developed countries diminish the chaotic attitude and improve their skills in health care service. This systematic practices and career growth increases the migrants of health care to developed countries.