In the 21st century, the number of students is increasing with time along with the increase in educational opportunities. Students migrate, travel and often permanently move to different parts of the world to pursue a standard academic achievement and a flourishing career. The cultural and social mix for knowledge and wisdom are bringing fortune to the youth but at the same time, they undergo certain sensitive affairs. These issues are often suppressed due to which, research states the youth self harm rate in dramatically increasing, leading to a threat to the entire adolescence lifestyle and moderately brushing the student’s academic system.
Basic methods used to conduct the research practice
The conduction of self harm prevention practices is different from the usual research method practices. In the opinion of Liu et al. (2010), the fundamental structure of the method includes selection of students from dissimilar geographical locations. The group includes students from, China, Nigeria, Australia, the United States and Lithuania. The core ideas used to conduct the practice are as follows,
Conducting self harm prevention awareness session
Outdoor and out of station activities of group
Classroom preaching and teaching with sharing past guilt and incidents
Special trauma relief therapy by professionals
The invitation of such crowds involved a large number of hindrances and assertive form of communication was required to establish security and trust among the group.
Introduction of the students group from diverse cultural background
As mentioned, the students belong from different geographical locations born and raised in diverse cultural as well as social backgrounds. The number of females was more from the countries like Lithuania, and China, while the male members were from Australia and states. As stated by Smith & Khawaja (2011), the Australian and the American students who were brought up in a comparably westernized culture, experienced serious hindrances in their pragmatic lifestyle, like high academic expectations from family and parental pressures. Whereas, the students from Nigeria and China are mostly migrating students and undergo other kind of issues.
Differences in nature of suicidal issues of the students from variable parts
The nature of problems faced by the westernized section differs from the ones from a more conservative and mediocre backgrounds. The most common issues of self harm and suicide related to racial harassment and inferiority complex among this category has been ranked above 30, with a percentage of 40.6% attempts of suicide.
In contrary, the Australian and the American mass are mostly native students, from the developed country and a polished educational system. Thus the expectations set by their family and acquaintances requires to be surpassing targets, which leads to bitter annoyance and frustration for the students, who fail to do so.
Figure 1. Rates of suicide differentiated by locations and age groups
The reason of choosing the particular group for the service
According to Jeong et al. (2011), the suicide rate is a expanded occurrence among all age groups, including the high society, street crowd, non successful, as well as successful people. Men are more likely to commit the act between age groups of 70-75, while women seem to experience suicide between the age group of 40-55.
Excluding the above factors, the specific groups of the students from diversifies cultural backgrounds are chosen, due to their adolescence attributes, delicate capabilities of understanding and ever increasing educational, monetary and relevant pressures. As a matter of fact, suicide rate seems to be the highest between the age group of 20-25. This particular group shall aid the students in relating and paring and fitting with the group of service users. The students from a large section of this group go through contrasting as well as similar nature of issues based on their respective backgrounds, such as,
Displaying extreme mood swings due to academic failure or relevant issues
Taking pills stockpiling, alcohol and drugs as supportive actions
Losing out on eminent opportunities or events, due to cultural clash among migrated and native students
Death related conversations and withdrawing from peers and acquaintances
As per Zhang & Brunton (2011), among the above factors, the most common reason is excessive academic pressure that not all of the students can cope up with and are unable to prove their abilities to excel like others.
The methods used to conduct the practice on the target group and their description
The service practices require effective strategies which are constructive and play a part in the actual implementation plan. The mandatory requirement of the fulfillment of all elements is not possible
In Order to construct a concrete implementation plan, the opinions and field based suggestions from several expertise and organization heads were utilized. Renowned self-harm or suicide prevention organizations and forms, such as, the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, World Health Observatory, and the NIMH had productive contribution in the practice.
In order to breakdown the planning and development of the practice, the initial stage involved the right way of approach towards the particular group. In evidence, South Korea possess the largest percentage of suicidal rates, yet most of the victims are not entirely prepared to reveal their personal affairs or attend social or public therapies and practices. In the opinion of Wang & Mallinckrodt (2012), some of the tactics like assurance of service user privacy and security, partial promising outcomes of the practice, creating written contract and a friendly nature of approach were acquired.
The eminent part of the action plan to meet the targets were the collection of maximum data based on the fundamental reasons of self harm, rates of suicide in specific areas based on gender and age groups. Some of the data collection methodologies used was,
Informal discussions at choice able venues of the service users or patients
Personal or one on one interaction, introduction of the meeting head
Face to face communication and starting with the first name to add a personal touch
Setting a common and convenient time for the interaction for all and bring up topics for formation of the group
Equal participation for all group members
Setting inspiration samples to create a positive and effective mental influence
Improvisation of alternative plans to solve or divert them from the issues with expertise help
According to Wei et al. (2012), improvising self help support for relevant usual problems among students like clinical depression, anxiety disorder, excessive competitiveness, ADHD disorder, alcoholism and more.
Figure 2. Fundamental structure of the action plan against self harm
Analytical outline of the determination of the practice objectives and goals
The main agenda of the practice is broad depending on the backgrounds and issues of the students. As per previous research, the academic pressure on learners is comparably high than that of the universities and education centers located in the countryside’s. It is brought into light that, more than 60% of the students suffer from clinical depression and possess suicidal behaviors due to additional pressures other than core educational stress.
As per the above findings, the issues can be influenced through the base or root of the arising problems. Some of the real world example is the suicide case of the young student of South Korea who had been a victim of suicide at the age of approximately 24, due to academic failure and partial poverty issue.
As stated by Wang et al. (2012), there are several strategic plans and procedures taken up by life saving and human health care associations like the California strategic planning centre, the suicide prevention advisory committee enforcing distinctive goals.
The core and generalized goals in this scenario, which can be listed, are,
Improvement of suicide rate evaluation and research quality via advanced technology covering different areas and educational sectors
Reduction of disgrace and negative sensations, like academic failure, class dropouts, cyber bullying, through mental health improvement tactics and special teaching guidance
Establishment of classroom environment comfort and promotion of student consultant facilities
Minimizing the availability of toxic drugs, like smart drugs or regular drugs affecting student’s health, to some extent, via, authorization and governmental aid
Sufficient media exposure of feedback and experiences shared by the stakeholders of the organizations, to spread awareness among victims and their families.
The most effective facilitation for the group
As mentioned above, a large number of measures were taken up in the practice, but eventually narrowed down according to the precise needs and requirements of the students from the different countries.
One of the most productive phenomenons that turned out to be practically useful for the service group is the method of firmly enforcing self help support and transparent interaction among each other.
As opined by Chen Bennett & Maton (2010), this particular method organized in the practice started with a precise information and record driven procedure. The reason behind highlighting this particular procedure, the student learns that the fastest remedy to prevent suicidal behaviors and attempts is to self improvise tactics and approach self harm preventing organizations and health care.
This facilitation in the practice focuses on encouragement of utmost transparency among group members and formation of partners with relevant past profiles. In evidence, a student with a similar incident of drug history due to academic failure as well as parental conflicts can find a peer with common disputes, becoming a live inspiration. Advanced technologies used for stress and time management initiated by the helpers to keep the service users diverted initially and encourage them to incorporate their ownership and enthusiasm in the act, proved to be one of the fastest working strategies.
The obstacles in the path of group practice
As per Garlow et al. (2014), there are a number of risk factors involved in the conduction of this practice. One of the most common and serious factors is dealing with the family members of the victims. The people surrounding the student play a key role in the healing process. The risk factors can involve,
Violence in behavior of specific members
An accidental opposite outcome established due to miscommunication with the service user
Driving into legal affairs, as many of the elements of such matters are categorized under civil laws and any violation of the law can lead to negative impact on the complete procedure.
Affecting the victim’s sentiments while interrogation or interaction
Violation of privacy or privacy disclosure can lead to harmful consequences as well.
The basic properties and characteristics of the group of students
The structural format of the entire group comprise of 15 members from the distinctive countries, which are China, United States, Nigeria Australia and Lithuania. The age range of the selected group have been taken between 19 -26, pursuing education in various degree courses and graduation like, business management, journalism, animal science and more. One fourth of the students were from the prestigious universities, that is the Stanford and the Yale. As stated by Hjelmeland et al. (2013), the students from Nigeria are from standard universities like, University of Benin, Ibadan University and more.
Figure 3. A structure of the group driven practice procedure
The formation of the group was done in such a way, so that the meeting date, venue and timing could be matched and collaborated, while the group meetings are being organized.
The times and venue decision of the meeting were decided by incorporating every member’s opinions and the meetings were held twice a week, mostly around 5pm to 6.30pm. So that the rest halves of the day could be productive for the members. Special sessions were offered in case of victim initiated approach was made to seek help.
The team was enforced by a chain of functioning team, such as the main organizer, the mental health professionals who provided valuable time and contributing and finally lead by volunteers, who made direct interaction step wise with the specific categories of the team.
Inclination of the practice plan to the underpinning theory
According to Muehlenkamp et al. (2016), the theoretical underpinning of the particular practice contributed in identifying and execution of a huge part of the plan prepared for the group, which was further experimented with different group work theories. The students pursuing higher studies and facing serious issues were considered based on the old analytical-school stemming. This part of the theory enforces the issue identification on a more developed level. This part of the theory has been improvised on the comparably senior age group from 23-26. This theory involves essential traditional strategies from Sigmund Freud, Ivan Pavlov and Carl Jung, which are used tactfully for the reduction of fall in enthusiasm in daily life. The comparable younger age group was helped with rewarding and lesson learning strategy of B.F Skinner, followed by cognitive behavioral therapy by group experts. The age group from 19- 21 seemed to be more benefitted by the psychoanalysis theory of Freud and a number of suitable ideas gathered from it.
Figure 4. The basic theoretical underpinning of suicide prevention and mental health care
The way in which the project aim, will meet the service users and set an example for other service users
The practice performed for the service users shall involved selected collection of the past records on student’s suicidal rates. According to Holliday Hyde & Kullman (2010), large number of researches, surveys and experiments has been done by the World health observatory, National committee for suicide prevention, the NIMH and more, in the history of self harm and mental health records. This particular practice focuses on the student’s group from diversified cultural background facing, financial or fees structure problems, issues involved with racism, inadequate cooperation from institute and mostly educational and academic pressure created on students in the modern society. It is necessary to identify before meeting the practice targets, that the youth culture is mostly suppressive in these cases and the right recognition of the issues that need advanced techniques but also the traditional methods of reaching the actual emotions of the individual.
This practice shall undoubtedly, educate the students about self control and security, which can be gathered by ownership and reaching out to similar people and organizations. As per Hu Ching & Chao (2012), the method used for classroom environment improvement, shall make the students more confident and get rid of the excessive introvert behavior in extreme cases. The betterment in evaluation including different areas shall predictably decrease the rate of self harm per year and eventually influence other associates in transparent interaction along with problem-solving.
As gathered from the above study, there are a number of methods mentioned in the scenario. The core objective or the motive of the social welfare working for the prevention of suicide among students can focus on establishing a notion of interlinked dependency, community based groups, empathetic and cooperative nature from the people surrounding the service users. The north eastern students often experience suicidal attempts due to racial harassment, inferiority complex due to their unique lifestyle and features. Similarly, there are bright and talented students attempting self harm due to various reasons, which can be diminished or reduced to an extent with social and cultural strategies apart from rigid main-stream medical treatments.
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