in the business environment and database system. It will also analyse the features and benefits of the database management system for the organization. It will also provide the entity relationship model for the database structure. The database life cycles and development process will be discussed to prepare the database design for the organization. Later, the implementation process will be discussed with consideration of the recommendations and monitoring.
There are several database applications those can help Sainsbury to manage the data. The organization can use the Microsoft Access because it is suitable for the small and medium size businesses and provide the required number of the features and functions. The database is effective to use in comparison of the client-server database systems. It can be import and export easily with the Microsoft office products (Coronel and Morris, 2016). Visual Basic for Access enables the customization of the code according to the demand to automate the operations and handle the data more effectively.
Also, the database files are used to create the web applications and ensure the smooth and reliable data security and performance. The organization has availability of the vast set of the functions to support the relationship management, data storage, security and decision making in the business. The organization has application of the database to record the sales made in the day. The application is also used to manage the product details, employee and customer details and the orders (Vine, 2012). The same information is also processed through the application to ensure that the decisions are more relevant to the business scopes in the market. However, the use of the database is not free from the issues and challenges:
Integrity: It means to manage the data accuracy and consistency in the application to ensure effective data processing. The database faces integrity issues when there are not effective rules and procedures to ensure the smooth management. Entity integrity is required to manage the uniqueness of each row in the table whereas referential integrity is used to manage the relationship with other tables. Entries within the columns are essential to determine through domain integrity whereas user-defined integrity rules can impact the database for the accuracy if they are not effectively designed.
Security: databases mainly face the issue of the security due to the programming code, incorrect configuration and poor data types. For example, the acceptances of the SQL queries in the simple and executable form can allow the attacker to nest the code and execute own operations on the database (Bosc, 2013). Security is essential to achieve on the physical and logical access.
Recovery: The database might face the issue of the recovery when there is no effective control on the user activities and there is no log for the rollback actions. If the transaction fails and it has changed the some values, it is not possible to rollback without the back tracing of the action. The recovery is essential to handle the data loss, damage and unwanted usage (Wirtz et al., 2014).
Concurrency: If two or more transactions are working at a time on a same set of the values, the database has to manage the concurrency as the poor management can provide outdated values to the processes and they can further lead issues in decision making. The concurrency is required to manage when there are multiple users and actions on the database at a time.
Database management systems are software those are used create and manage the databases with controls on the access for others. Therefore, it is the set of the programs used to manage the database files with high security and management. Following are major advantages and features of the database management systems:
Redundancy control: The multiple tables in the database or private files of the database applications can consume the storage whereas they are using a same file for their execution. The database management system can reduce the redundancy and improve the storage of the system. For example, tables having the same field consume spaces within the database and increase the size of the file.
Enforced integrity: The DBMS can enforce the integrity to ensure that the data is being updated and inserted with the consideration of the defined rules and procedures. Integrity helps to achieve the accurate and consistent data during the operations and meet the effective processing and decision making (Airò Farulla, 2017).
Data sharing: secure and reliable data sharing can be achieved with the systems as they can allow the users to create the role and permissions of the users on the database file. It helps to create the access level among the users to process the data with high security. The files also can be exported into multiple formats.
Standardization: The processing and application of the data can be standardized in the organizational context. The organization can create the rules and standards those can be deployed on the departmental structure easily. It helps to reduce the erroneous practices and boost the performance.
Managing authenticity: The authenticity to use the files can be defines so that unwanted users cannot access the database systems. It helps to achieve the security and for that, the organization can define the permissions or set the passwords to decrypt the data (Elmasri and Navathe, 2016).
Automate data backup: The system has feature to backup the data and transactions so that security and availability can be enforced. The organization can ensure the maximum consistency and reliability with systems to avail the data.
A database development methodology is effective to facilitate the developers in planning, modelling and managing the database development process. It can help to achieve the systematic and structured execution with validation of the data and stages. The methodology for the development has consideration of mainly three processes: conceptual, logical and physical modelling of the data.
During the methodology, the conceptual model can be prepared with the declaration and definition of the entities, attributes and constraints whereas entity types can be defined to ensure the effective conceptual design with data accuracy. Also, relationship, type of the relationship, associated attributes, and keys are determined. At last, the conceptual model is validated and reviewed for the accuracy and redundancy issues.
During the process, the logical design is prepared with validated conceptual model. Relations are derived through the programming language and validated for the normalization process. Also, user transactions, and integrity constraints are checked (Ambler, 2012). It has effective integration of the users in the logical design of the system for the organization. However, it is the structure of the database system without the need of data.
Base tables are created at this process and derived data are presented. Also, business rules, file organization, and indexes are prepared. The organization can analyze the transactions and need of storage and on that basis; user views and security mechanisms can be designed. The outcome of the process is the implementable solution for the organization.
Entity-relationship model is used to present the relationship between the entities in the database system whereas entities are objects having information. Therefore, entities are concepts having relevancy to the database. For example, there are four departments in each company and each employee has relationship with one department only. Therefore, there are mainly four entities including employee, department and company and dependents.
Relationship is used to link the tables for their association. For example, one employee is related to one department which represents one-to-one relationship. Also, one department can contain one or more employees; it is one-to-many relationship (Thalheim, 2013). Also, the dependents of the employees might be zero or many which represents the relationship of many-to-many.
butes are used to define the entities. For example, the name, contact details, department name and other details associated with the employee entity are the attributes. The attribute which can define the rows or record uniquely is a key. A primary key is not null and unique key for the table. Employee dependents can be presented with the help of multi-valued attribute as one employee might have multiple dependents.
The database has used normalization which means to remove the anomalies and redundancy from the database. During the first normal form, each cell contains single value and all details are arranged in a table. For example, the tables of employees, department and other entities are in first normal form where each cell has single value. During second normal form, the tables are confirmed in first normal form and each record has unique identifier. Therefore, primary keys are added in tables (Coronel and Morris, 2016). Candidate keys are also created. During third normal form, the transitive functional dependency is removed. For example, employee table is segmented into new tables to define zip code, dependent ID and other details.
Database development life cycle has mainly six stages those are used to carry out the development work in a structured and systematic manner. The book store can be use the data sets to meet the requirements whereas the outcome of the each stage is validated.
Initial study: During the stage, the conditions of the organization are analyzed to understand the need and define the scope. Also, problems and constraints are determined. The objectives, scopes and boundaries are defined for the project. For example, the organization has skills and capabilities to use the Microsoft Access whereas the organization has scope to achieve the effective management through the resolution of the problems including erroneous practices and inconsistent data.
Database design: The main purpose of the stage is to transform the requirements into the logical structure for the implementation with the database systems (Valacich et al., 2014). For example, the organization can map the requirements into the rational schema and design to support the functions and features so that the developers can use the details to create the database. It logically presents the actions and users.
Implementation and loading: A Database management system, in this case Microsoft Access, is installed ands used to create the tables. The data is loaded into the application and formatted as required to achieve the functionality. The implementation phase of the database has used of the logical structure to understand the data and data types along with relationship among them to deliver the functionality and features. The sub stage of the implementation is data conversion and loading in which logical design is mapped to the physical design.
Testing: The purpose of the testing phase is to achieve the functionality in the system. During the testing, the outcomes are tested along with data security, reliability, performance and management. If testing is not appropriate, database can be maintained under the operational activities to achieve the desired outcomes (Elmasri and Navathe, 2016).
The bookstore can use the Access database to meet the requirements. However, the present set of the information can be used to map the needs but more tables can be added to the system whenever required. From the create menu, new table can be created. Each field can be renamed and data types can be set from within the datasheet view where view is Design view. Primary key can be defined on the selected column (Debenham, 2012). The database can use the import function to feed the data from the Excel sheet. The feature is used to create the new table named as Books. Also, the wizards help to create the primary key and avoid the use of the duplicate records within the database.
The application is used to create the forms and set the components according to the table Books. The form is created and formatted to accept the values. There are several options on the forms to manage the data. For example, save records can be used to save the entered or updated data whereas new button can be used to create the new records. The form can be closed securely (Harrington, 2016). The database has referential integrity among the tables so that the data is managed with high consistency and integrity. Relationship is enforced to ensure that the information is accurate and related to other tables during the update operations. The database has set the data types and their lengths according to demand to achieve the support for effective data storage.
The database has easy to use interface and features those are used to create the tables, queries and forms for the organization. The Bookstore has used the database application to create the tables, update their fields and values, primary key and relationship with other tables. The solution to the Bookstore has effectiveness in the term of the tables and forms. The tables are interconnected and effective to store the data. The appropriate field type, size and position within the table help to ensure that the data is stored in the validated, accurate and reliable manner. Also, forms are useful for the business to avoid the direct interaction with the database tables (Harrington, 2016). The forms also have buttons and other options those can be used as the graphical user interface components to boost the performance. The forms are created for the required number of the tables to assist the users in the data entry and update process.
The queries are also created to access the data quickly. The accurate and validated queries are used to ensure that the database can provide the effective data for the easy decision making and business
processing. The queries are also useful to meet the performance as the routine operations can be executed easily and effectively. The database is secured with the password to deliver the security. Relationship among the table is useful for the organization as the users are not able to feed the wrong details into the tables through the forms whereas the deletion or update of the record is also constraint with the security parameters (Bosc, 2013).
Besides to it, the solution has several features for the business those can make the routine operations effective. For example, import function can be used to take the data from the multiple types of the files and create and populate the tables in the database. Also, database has feature to create the reports those can be used to share the required data with others. The database is effective to meet the current demands but it can be improved for the further usability.