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    Database design concept Assignment Help

    Database design concept Assignment Help

    Database design concept


    Databases are being used as the backbone of the business as they provide the effective data management and ensure the integrity, consistency and availability. The report will discuss the issues and applications within the business environment and database system. It will also analyse the features and benefits of the database management system for the organization. It will also provide the entity relationship model for the database structure. The database life cycles and development process will be discussed to prepare the database design for the organization. Later, the implementation process will be discussed with consideration of the recommendations and monitoring.

    Task 1

    1.1 Analyse the key issues and application of databases within organizational environments 

    There are several database applications those can help Sainsbury to manage the data. The organization can use the Microsoft Access because it is suitable for the small and medium size businesses and provide the required number of the features and functions. The database is effective to use in comparison of the client-server database systems. It can be import and export easily with the Microsoft office products (Coronel and Morris, 2016). Visual Basic for Access enables the customization of the code according to the demand to automate the operations and handle the data more effectively. 

    Also, the database files are used to create the web applications and ensure the smooth and reliable data security and performance. The organization has availability of the vast set of the functions to support the relationship management, data storage, security and decision making in the business. The organization has application of the database to record the sales made in the day. The application is also used to manage the product details, employee and customer details and the orders (Vine, 2012). The same information is also processed through the application to ensure that the decisions are more relevant to the business scopes in the market. However, the use of the database is not free from the issues and challenges:

    Integrity: It means to manage the data accuracy and consistency in the application to ensure effective data processing. The database faces integrity issues when there are not effective rules and procedures to ensure the smooth management. Entity integrity is required to manage the uniqueness of each row in the table whereas referential integrity is used to manage the relationship with other tables. Entries within the columns are essential to determine through domain integrity whereas user-defined integrity rules can impact the database for the accuracy if they are not effectively designed.

    Security: databases mainly face the issue of the security due to the programming code, incorrect configuration and poor data types. For example, the acceptances of the SQL queries in the simple and executable form can allow the attacker to nest the code and execute own operations on the database (Bosc, 2013). Security is essential to achieve on the physical and logical access.

    Recovery: The database might face the issue of the recovery when there is no effective control on the user activities and there is no log for the rollback actions. If the transaction fails and it has changed the some values, it is not possible to rollback without the back tracing of the action. The recovery is essential to handle the data loss, damage and unwanted usage (Wirtz et al., 2014).

    Concurrency: If two or more transactions are working at a time on a same set of the values, the database has to manage the concurrency as the poor management can provide outdated values to the processes and they can further lead issues in decision making. The concurrency is required to manage when there are multiple users and actions on the database at a time.

    1.2 Critically evaluate the features and advantages of database management systems 

    Database management systems are software those are used create and manage the databases with controls on the access for others. Therefore, it is the set of the programs used to manage the database files with high security and management. Following are major advantages and features of the database management systems:

    Redundancy control: The multiple tables in the database or private files of the database applications can consume the storage whereas they are using a same file for their execution. The database management system can reduce the redundancy and improve the storage of the system. For example, tables having the same field consume spaces within the database and increase the size of the file.

    Enforced integrity: The DBMS can enforce the integrity to ensure that the data is being updated and inserted with the consideration of the defined rules and procedures. Integrity helps to achieve the accurate and consistent data during the operations and meet the effective processing and decision making (Airò Farulla, 2017).

    Data sharing: secure and reliable data sharing can be achieved with the systems as they can allow the users to create the role and permissions of the users on the database file. It helps to create the access level among the users to process the data with high security. The files also can be exported into multiple formats.

    Standardization: The processing and application of the data can be standardized in the organizational context. The organization can create the rules and standards those can be deployed on the departmental structure easily. It helps to reduce the erroneous practices and boost the performance.

    Managing authenticity: The authenticity to use the files can be defines so that unwanted users cannot access the database systems. It helps to achieve the security and for that, the organization can define the permissions or set the passwords to decrypt the data (Elmasri and Navathe, 2016).

    Automate data backup: The system has feature to backup the data and transactions so that security and availability can be enforced. The organization can ensure the maximum consistency and reliability with systems to avail the data.

     Task 2

    2.1 Analyze a database developmental methodology

    A database development methodology is effective to facilitate the developers in planning, modelling and managing the database development process. It can help to achieve the systematic and structured execution with validation of the data and stages. The methodology for the development has consideration of mainly three processes: conceptual, logical and physical modelling of the data.

    Conceptual database design methodology   

    During the methodology, the conceptual model can be prepared with the declaration and definition of the entities, attributes and constraints whereas entity types can be defined to ensure the effective conceptual design with data accuracy. Also, relationship, type of the relationship, associated attributes, and keys are determined. At last, the conceptual model is validated and reviewed for the accuracy and redundancy issues.

    Logical database design methodology   

    During the process, the logical design is prepared with validated conceptual model. Relations are derived through the programming language and validated for the normalization process. Also, user transactions, and integrity constraints are checked (Ambler, 2012). It has effective integration of the users in the logical design of the system for the organization. However, it is the structure of the database system without the need of data.

    Physical database design methodology   

    Base tables are created at this process and derived data are presented. Also, business rules, file organization, and indexes are prepared. The organization can analyze the transactions and need of storage and on that basis; user views and security mechanisms can be designed. The outcome of the process is the implementable solution for the organization.


    The database has used normalization which means to remove the anomalies and redundancy from the database. During the first normal form, each cell contains single value and all details are arranged in a table. For example, the tables of employees, department and other entities are in first normal form where each cell has single value. During second normal form, the tables are confirmed in first normal form and each record has unique identifier. Therefore, primary keys are added in tables (Coronel and Morris, 2016). Candidate keys are also created. During third normal form, the transitive functional dependency is removed. For example, employee table is segmented into new tables to define zip code, dependent ID and other details.

    Task 3

    3.1 Apply the database developmental cycle to a given data set

    Database development life cycle has mainly six stages those are used to carry out the development work in a structured and systematic manner. The book store can be use the data sets to meet the requirements whereas the outcome of the each stage is validated.


                         Figure 1: Select query wizard to create new query on opened table

                                 Figure 2: Select Simple Query Wizard

     The organization can use the custom reports created on the queries to share the data. Also, the organization can use the pivot charts and other tools to represent the information in graphical manner to support the decision making. The organization is recommended to encrypt the information. For that, database can be secure the access and encrypt the data like passwords and other details within the table. However, it is possible that the authenticated users might access the tables directly so that the organization can use custom applications to secure the data management. For example, the existing database can be used as the backed to provide the services. 

    3.4 Provide supporting user and technical documentation

    The organization has need of the documentation so that user can understand the system and its features whereas technical team can use the information to update and upgrade the system

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