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### DATA ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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DATA ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Introduction
A computer system comprises of different types of memories that helps it to store information of the users. The memory of the computer works on a high speed. Nowadays computer has become an important part of human life and in order to make data analyses work in an efficient manner, computer plays a vital role. The college that is planning sessions based on computer mathematics and it can help students to help them in their mathematical exercises. This study is going to focus on the ways in which this college will try to incorporate data analyses to a mathematical calculation through computer. An attempt is made in this study to convert different kinds of number systems into numeric data. There are a number of components that are associated with computing system. Students of this college can make use of these systems for making their mathematical assignments in a quick as well as efficient manner.
LO1 Data represented in computer system
P1. Explaining ways in which alphanumeric as well as numeric data can be coded in systems
A computer is unable to work without the help of an alphabet such as A B or C, thus the entire things are translated into codes. In the computer, each of the keys is a type of the keyboards those are converted in the form of a coded number those are turned in binary codes. For instance, letter A amounts of 65 witches those are translated in the binary number 1000001 or it can be 0110 0101, which is mainly noted as the Binary Coded Decimal (BCD). In the view of Duan et al. (2015, p.1150), it mainly takes place only when a machine breaks each of the parts in a single unit as well as it also works without any kind of binary code. When the entire computers are required to be coded with Binary Hexadecimal in terms of the Unicode is mainly because these are not enough character.
The standards code for Information Interchange (ASCII), in terms of the collaboration with the Unicode it can be seen that there is the use of various language to type. Those are 1,114,112 characters in the Unicode. In this process of coding, it covers all the languages as well as some of the strange pictures those includes the symbols and smiley faces. As per the view of Fratto et al. (2014, 12045), the codes in terms of ASCII mainly represent the text from the computers as well as the communication devices those are used as a text. UTF-8 is a useful tool for coding system and in current state, it has proved to be one of the main character of coding type for World Wide Web. For example, the UTF-8 consists of string that is of four characters. Thus the numeric, as well as alphanumeric data, can be simply coded in terms of saving all the protected files on the system.

P2 Explaining how various data can be stored and converted in computer system
The various computer data storage is a much complex subject that is needed to be broken down. The computer system mostly works with the various types of digital data. There are various multimedia data types such as audio, video graphics and so on. In the opinion of  Gracia-Moran et al. (2014, p.150), all the data are mainly stored in terms of binary digits. There are various techniques for each of the data for converting.
Analog and digital data - Analog data are continuous as well as they are analogue because of the actual data they are representing. Most of the aspects of the natural world are in a continuous in terms of their nature. In addition to that, the computer system is not in a continuous system but it is finite. As asserted by Hossain and Hasan (2015, p.20), newer monitors are using more colours as well as it represents some of the images. For example, a color image on the computer has very specific limited colours, the numbers can be large but it is denoted as infinite.
Binary numbers - Each of the data in the computers are stored as the medium of numbers. For example, letters are converted to numbers along with that the photographs are converted into a huge amount of set of numbers which are indicating the brightness as well as the color. As opined by Jagadish et al. (2014, p.90), the numbers are converted into the binary data.
Primary data storage - The main data storage is done on the hard disk drive. In the home computer, there is mainly the use of cassette tapes for the storage of data. On the other hand, the binary data are recorded in the medium of various series of tiny areas in the disc that are magnetized in the north or south directions.
Other data storage - Some of the latest laptops computers are used as the solid-state drivers in terms of primary data storage. They mostly have the memory chips in the MP3 player, SD card and so on. In the opinion of Jones (2014, p.52), the binary members are mainly recorded in terms of charging or it can be not charging a small series of the time capacitors in the chip.
P3 Converting numeric data between the various number system
There are various techniques that are helpful for converting the numbers from one form to another. As asserted by Papandroulidakis et al. (2014, p.970), in the decimal to another system the numbers can be converted with some of the few steps.

Figure 1: Example of Decimal to another base
(Source: Papandroulidakis et al. 2014, p.970)
There are some steps as well from the other base system to decimal system with there steps. As opined by Peng et al. (2015, p.10), the steps are much more important for the converting process.
Step 1- Determine the columns (positional) value of each of the digits. (this is mainly dependent on the positions as well as the digits and their base for the number system).
Step 2- Multiplying the obtained columns those values in step 1 by the digits in some of the corresponding columns.
Step 3- Some of the products are calculated in step 2. The total is mainly equivalent to the decimal form. (Refer to practical class)

The gate circuits have only two inputs those are regarded as the binary operators while using in the algebra. In addition to that, there are three distinct binary operators for the Boolean algebra as well as one unary operator. The binaries operators are mostly the AND operators, the ExOR operators and the OR operators. As opined by Kanehisa et al. (2013, p.200), the Boolean algebra is developed which are mainly based upon the three binary operators as well as the inverter or unary operators. The truth table list is mainly showing the constitution those are required for operating the logics are false or true. The various variations of the input variables as well as the resulting output are used in the Boolean algebra. The AND operators and the truth tables are mainly showing the output of the AND gate that is high only when both inputs are high as well as the output is switching to the circuit.
The main symbols those are used in the Boolean functions, as well as formulas, are mainly the dot (or frequently a &) in terms of the AND operator. On the other hand, if the variables are only representing a single letter then AND symbols in between the variables are omitted. As per Konstantinou and Lavie (2013, p.919), if ‘OR’ is separated, then the function are mostly referred to as Sum-Of-Products (SOP). The functions those consist of the groups such as OR operators those are separated by AND operators then it is mainly referred as the POS. The OR symbol is mainly the + (arithmetic plus symbol). The ExOR symbol is mainly denoted as thea +. The symbols are mainly referred as the modulo-2 or mod-2 sun symbol. (Refer to practical class

Figure 3: Boolean algebra operators
(Source: Konstantinou and Lavie 2013, p.919)
LO2 Functions of computer system
P5 Illustrating the key component system
The design of the computers can differ from one system to other. There are mainly six basic components of the computer system. Those are input unit, the output unit, storage unit, central processing unit (CPU), Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) and the control unit. In the input unit, there are various systems those are required to enter into the computer system while entering in the computation for performing in the stipulated data. The data, as well as the instructions, are mainly entered in the form of input units which are dependent on the particular device. As per the view of Lee and Lai (2015, p.1312), the output unit is as reserved as the input unit. In the output unit, it is mainly transferred of the information as well as the results for the computations in the outside world. The computers are working as a binary code thus, the results are also produced as a binary form.
In the storage unit the data, as well as the instructions, are entered in the computers through the computer system with the medium of input units that are required for storing of the inside in the computer before the correct processing starts. As asserted by Mutlu et al. (2016, p.80), the major unit which is the important unit is present inside the CPU. The instruction is mainly served in the hard-wired CPU as well as it determines the machine language.

s dealing with an attached processor
Computer comprises of two kinds of memories such as secondary memory and primary memory. Primary memory could be accessed through processing unit. RAM is a type of primary memory. The data of primary memory tends to be lost as computer is switched off (Williams  and Gong, 2014, p.24). Memory can be further divided into volatile as well as non-volatile. Volatile memory stores data for a short period of time. It can be said that RAM is a volatile memory. On the other hand, non-volatile memory stores data for a longer period and as system is turned off data does not gets lost. Memory can be also divided into cache, physical and flash. The physical memory is installed inside a computer.

Types of physical memory:
RAM- The random access memory is a type of memory that is based on semiconductor and it enables the user to read or write in the computer memory.  RAM is a kind of volatile memory.
ROM- read only memory stores data on a permanent basis. The data that are stored in ROM can only be read and unlike RAM, no changes can be made.
PROM- the programmable read only memory can store data on permanent basis. The programming of read only memory can be programmed with the use of device programmer. PROM is programmed and there is a tendency of blowing up of fuses due to high voltage.
EPROM- The programming in this memory gets erased through the effect of ultraviolet rays. Ultra violet rays cause a chemical reaction and its chemical probe removes or erases data from erasable programmable read only memory (van Geldorp et al. 2014, p.233). This can be viewed with the help of crystal window.
Flash ROM- It is a type of electrically erasable read only memory. The data can be erased through presence of electrical field. Data in this memory can be rewritten in the form of 512 bytes rather than in bit.
P7 Explaining the use of interrupts and polling for communication between peripherals and processor
Interrupt can be defined as a event that is external or internal, which interrupts the microcontroller. Interrupt service routine is associated with interrupt. It has been found that a microcontroller is used to serve a number of devices. The professor who is going to teach about computer architecture needs to give a thorough detailing of interrupts as well as polling. In polling method, all the external devices that are involved in the poling method are dependent on microcontroller. One of the weaknesses of using interrupts is that before starting any new program, microcontroller needs time to check the entire process.
The polling as well as interrupts helps in establishing communication between peripherals and processor. Processor is not a multitasked and so it is unable to do two tasks at a time. A large number of peripherals are connected to a computer that includes screen, mouse, scanner, printer, keyboard and soundcard. Central processing unit has to give attention to these peripherals before completing its tasks (Sinharoy et al. 2015, p.3). In order to ensure that the time when these peripherals need CPU, a device might be developed. Polling is a device that helps in giving indication to the CPU regarding needs of interrupts. It is used for giving signals to polls for data transmission.
One of the advantages of polling is that it allows computer to quickly respond to changes that are made in the status of I/O device. It can be said that an interrupt is used as a signal to CPU regarding attention to the peripheral device. Interrupt controller is sued for making an interrupt request on hardware.CPU launches a device that is termed as interrupt handler. These interrupts handlers assist CPU to perform its task along with responding to peripherals.
LO3 Processor operations principles
P8 Comparison between Complex instruction set computer chips and reduced instruction set computer chips
The professor who need to give lessons regarding computer architecture need to understand the basic difference between complex instruction set computer chips(CISC) and reduced instruction set computer chip(RISC).

his comparison could help professor to demonstrate advantages as well as advantages of RISC to their students. One of the main goals of a CISC approach is that to complete a particular task within few lines. It is generally achieved with the help of processor hardware. After building hardware processor, a number of operations could be done. In order to do a task, CISC processor contains a set of instructions (Triguero et al. 2015, p.332). These instructions get loaded in different registers. MULT is a kind of complex instruction and it gets operated in the memory of a computer. This function does not require loading or storing of function by a programmer. The command gets represented by high level language. The main advantage of using CISC is that it reduces the task of a compiler and no attempt has to be made regarding translation of high-level language.
The RISC approach makes use of simple instructions within a short period of time. Here, MULT com and is replaced by the LOAD command. This command helps on transferring data from memory to register. RISC approach takes less time for transferring data input registers. This approach tends to bring merits for a computing system. The instruction that is given to memory needs proper execution and this execution is only possible in this approach. Less number of transistors is used by reduced instruction in compare to complex instruction chips. Although RISC approach is able to provide efficiency but its commercialization was a slow process. In the absence of effective software, RISC was unable to set its foothold over the commercial world.

P9 Illustrating the use of various processor register in fetch execute cycle
The fetch-decode-execute cycle is adopted by a computer for carrying out certain action and it also assist a computer to fetch instruction related to a program. Central processing unit is held responsible for repetition of this cycle begins from boot till shut down of computer (Silberschatz et al. 2014, p.15). Registers that are involved in this process include the following
Control unit: The control unit helps in decoding a program in the CIR like register that is meant for data source. It is generally used for conducting arithmetic functions in the computer system.
Arithmetic logic unit: The arithmetic logic unit assist a computer for performing activities that are associated with logical as well as mathematical operations.
Program counter: Program counter is defined as an incrementing type of counter which keeps control over the address of memory.
Register for current instruction: This type of register is meant for holding of instructions  at a area that are fetched from the memory of computer.
Register for memory buffer: It is a type of two way register that is used for holding data that are waiting in memory.
In order to get a detailing of the cycle of fetch-decode-execute the following diagrams can be see
Conclusion
After going through the above mentioned study, it can be concluded that the professor of the college is require to get a thorough knowledge of the different systems that are present in the computer system. It has been found that various types of memories inside computer helps in storing of data and it assist users to complete their task within limited period of time. Computer can also help in mathematical operations by conducting different types of analysing operations within memory. Computer has both volatile as well as a non-volatile memory and both can be used for storing data. In order to store data in an effective manner read only memory can be recommended because it is non-volatile type of memory.