The best business to come up with is a food related business. Let us agree that besides all the activities that go on through our daily lives, we have to take a meal at the end of the day. But, let us look at this business concept from a different perspective – from a metropolitan way of life in Auckland. The place is a suburb located within a business district with hundreds and hundreds of people flocking in and out of the city for commercial reasons but where do they eat? – In cafes, restaurants, hotels and most rely on fasts foods. Think of a business plan that combines all the features of a restaurant, café, fast food, and an online site for food delivery in this region; how does that idea sound?
Given the fact that Sandringham, Auckland is not a highly residential area that means that despite the existing food providers in the region, there exists room for more food industry establishment in the region for all the people who come and exit the city. Additionally, it is not any kind of a food industry, it is an Asian based restaurant given the region is a multi-ethnic suburb but with a higher population of Asians. These basic and rudimentary basis, are the facts that are used to find a more substantial stand to starting a restaurant in this region as follows in the following dissertation.
The customers will be the greatest beneficiaries of the new restaurant as follows:
• The restaurant will provide a reliable source for high quality meals at any time of day.
• Routine delivery of meals within the city at an affordable rate.
• Free complimentary wine for all sit-in meals.
• The comfort of making orders from customer homes by the use of the restaurant website.
• A diversified menu for all people; that includes indigenous foods for Asian people, and also casual food for all people as served in other restaurants.
• A 24/7 reliable customer support that will be handling customer inquiries.
• A refund scheme if the order was late, unsatisfactory or misplaced.
• An option to sample, review and comment on the food provided in the restaurant.
We all agree that with the ever modernizing world and an urban suburb like Auckland, digitalization and urbanization are inevitable, so to the best way to survive in such a nature is to blend in and that is exactly the plan that this restaurant is expected to fulfil.
The purpose of this dissertation is to weigh out the best optimal way to come up with an Indian-based restaurant in Sandringham, Auckland. The aim is to create a restaurant that succeeds in providing the best indigenous Indian meals as well as Asian meals. Apart from having service excellence, the dissertation will prove a profit-making plan after a close analysis of all the factors that comprise restaurant business.
To come up with a plan to start an Indian restaurant, there should be a feasible model that outlines all the requirements within and around the restaurant business. Thus, we have come up with the following main research question to help in drafting the restaurant model.
The question helps create the general picture of all other questions that relate to starting an Indian restaurant in the region as follows.
• What area is mainly proposed for restaurant in running market?
• What should be the population size of market restaurant and what would be the customer needs, such as average consumer income? • Who are the main competitors for restaurant and how long they are sustained in the market?
• Which is the best location to choose for desirable restaurants?
• Will the new restaurant be sustained in the market such as dealing profit and with the set price, limited hours & what would be the restaurant turnover?
• What is the demand of an Indian restaurant in Sandringham, Auckland?
• Does the business climate favour opening up a restaurant?
• What is the financial expectation for starting up a well and functional restaurant?
• What are the challenges of starting up a new restaurant?
• What is the expectation of restaurant sales?
• What types of incentives are feasible to lure and maintain customers in a restaurant?
The questions above, formulated the following objectives:
• To determine the economic environment: the current market trend of restaurants in Auckland
• To investigate the restaurant growth in New Zealand environment
• To realize the social and regional environment that affects the restaurant market
• To realize the factors that relate to restaurant business (economic, technological, legal)
• To estimate the consumer expenditure break-up in New Zealand
• To compare the foreign and local restaurant sales
• To oversee restaurant sales, type of sales and modes of sales in New Zealand
• To determine Auckland’s location and population suitability for restaurant establishment
• To determine the challenges of running a restaurant in Auckland, New Zealand
• To investigate the future of restaurants in New Zealand
• To determine the restaurant industry in Auckland, New Zealand.
The proposed restaurant aims at providing the best services to restaurant users in the region at an affordable rate that will favor all the social classes in the Auckland community. The restaurant aims at making significant profits but that does not exempt the fact that the restaurant is established to serve the people who require restaurant services. The business aims at attaining the following significance upon its establishment:
• Creating a reliable source of Indian and Asian foods in Auckland
• Greater emphasis on quality than quantity of food
• A pillar of Indian and Asian food heritage in Auckland.
• An income generating hub for the Auckland community, benefiting the management and workers as well.
• Chefs and intern training programs for those that are interested in Asian cuisines. The fact is, with such an embodiment of an Indian restaurant in Auckland, we estimate the impact to be more concrete and lasting.
The dissertation is planned to cover all the elements required in the instructions including research and be through at an estimate of 9 months starting from January to September. The dissertation has already taken drastic measures and will be due in the estimated time. The structure the dissertation will take two broad phases namely the Research Phase and Business Plan Phase:
1. The Research Phase will include:
• Introduction Phase
• Literature Review phase
• Research Methodology and Ethical Consideration phase
• Results Analysis Phase
2. The business Plan Elements includes:
• Business concept
• Marketing strategies
• Human Resource analysis
• Resources and Finances Phase
This marks the conclusion of the introduction chapter and the overview of the dissertation to follow. However, there are some specialist terms used in this dissertation we would like to explain.
The purpose of the literature review is to analyze all the features that surround a certain piece of research target and in this case of wanting to establish a restaurant some of the features that the literature review will look at include:
• The restaurant Industry in Auckland
• The current market trends & growth of Restaurants in New Zealand over the last few years.
• The factors that relate to restaurants in the region (Economic, social, technological and legal)
• Consumer expenditure break-up in New Zealand.
• Comparison of restaurant sales in New Zealand and foreign markets to measure profitability.
• Restaurant sales, type of sales and modes of sales in New Zealand.
• Auckland’s location and population suitability for restaurant establishment.
• The Asian population in Auckland.
• The demand statistics for meals in Auckland restaurants.
• The challenges that restaurants face in Auckland, New Zealand.
The history of restaurants in Auckland started a while ago once the city was named the capital. With creation of mall hotels to later the prominent restaurants that exists today. The restaurant industry in Auckland serves as one of the strongest economic and captivating features in the region (Zealand, 2012). With the city’s expectation of hundreds of thousands of people in a daily basis, the city needs feeding for all these souls and that’s why most of the restaurants services run on a 24/7 basis (Market-Realist, 2015).
In Auckland, the food industry is the key to running the city and it is a fact that providing the right food rationale to the population if progress is to be achieved. The Auckland community recognizes this fact and that is why they are appreciative of the existing restaurants by visiting them regularly (Nz Herald, 2015). That creates an opportunity for more restaurants to be created in the region since there is already a steady usage of restaurant services. That gives us more reason to even come up with the idea of a diversified type of restaurant – an Indian restaurant.
Figure 2.1 The restaurant users segment in Auckland, New Zealand (Market-Realist, 2015)
The current Auckland economic environment favors the restaurant Industry in almost all possible ways. Starting with the cost of production which is a fundamental economic factor for any industry to develop. Auckland, is a networked hub where raw materials, labor and market is available (Bloomsbury & Peters, 2015). That is one way of viewing the economic environment, the other way is looking at the market trends and the market sales of intended products. Several accounts of restaurant owners according to Mathers (2014) have experienced a rise in the scale of sales as well as the prices of respective dishes.
Additionally, with the increased population many restaurant owners have admitted to have prior-reservations for tables leaving most of the later reserves without a decent meal opting for alternative eating methods like fast foods (Khan, 2014). With such first account admission to a market shortage of restaurants in Auckland, I believe that strikes a best opportunity for creation of our restaurant in Auckland.
The trends show a consistent improvement of the industry for over 7 years till 2014 quarterly (Statistics New Zealand, 2014). The industry consists of multiple sources of food service providers such as cafes, restaurants, pubs & bars etc. As per mentioned survey, it was found that restaurants and cafes have been major contributors in total sales which translate to almost half of the industry sales. Also till March, 2014, the overall sales volume has risen and the sales volume of the industry has started rising consequently up to 12% since September 2010.
According to Social Factors Affecting (2014), there are certain social factors that affect food choice. These factors include culture and traditions, lifestyles, and social interaction. Traditions are the customs of a specific group of people. One integral part of traditions is special occasions involving food (Chen & Elston, 2013). The factors of lifestyle affecting food choice include education, employment, geographic location, travel and interests, household structures and roles. Under social interaction, food is considered as a symbol of hospitality and friendship.
There are various factors that define whether a restaurant business succeeds or not. According toBloomsbury & Geoff Peters (2015, August 25), these factors are the menu, customer service, unique selling point, management, hiring and training of staff, marketing and capital. A restaurant should design a menu such that most profitable items are grouped together, the menu has compelling photos and text and there are popular items on it (Thomas, 2014). The menu should be clean and there should be no dollar signs on it. The prices and items should be updated regularly and the staff should be familiar with it.
A restaurant should have exceptional customer service and the selling point should be unique. The management should be in a position to analyze the performance of the business. The restaurant should hire and train right employees and employ the right marketing strategy. The owners of the business should have enough capital to run the business. These sentiments were also seconded by Kate Taylor (2016).
Some important legal and technological factors which always need to take in consideration while running a restaurant or food service business. First one is the Consumer Health care Act,This is one of the most important factor which affect restaurant by restricting on menu & considering health oriented dishes to be served at all times (Social Factors, 2015). The government has always been health oriented towards the consumer’s wellbeing which restrict the restaurant to launch cuisine at certain limit.
The other factorsare :
• Social Media:Themedial has been affecting the most over the restaurant industry by having quick & global presence in the market. Social media has been used by the huge set of customer base which allows the restaurant to advertise in a better way.
• Different Lifestyle: The consumers also making an impact in choosing the menu or cuisine.
• Hospitality at Home: Most of the consumers prefers to have takeaway orders in order to save the time & effort which lead to be more feasible in ordering the food & finally led to increase of the restaurant business.
• Food Regulations: It is mandate to follow the legal act of food inspection & food licensing while setting up a restaurant or a food service business.
• Technology: It has been one of the most important key resources for the succession of restaurant industry which has made the industry dependent. As Technology has been used every part of the restaurant operations in order to save time, to have more accurate operation & effective. Below are the lists of Technological factors which have affected the industry.
• Website:The website plays an important role in promoting the business as well as the making online orders with accurate transactions. It has also been used to capture customer’s feedback & suggestions of the business (Resources, 2015).
• POS (Point of Sale recorder) System:The POS system has been most effective & accurate tool to manage the kitchen transactions as well as sales of the restaurant which provides the timely accurate report & to manage the stock of the kitchen as well as for cash register.
• Electronic Menu:We will be introducing electronic menu system in order to save customer’s time & have an accurate order. This will also reduce the manpower requirement which will be a benefit for the restaurant revenue. The electronic menu will be given in the form of a tablet (Resources, 2015).
According to Statistics New Zealand (2014), there has been an increase in expenditure on ready to eat meals and restaurant meals in New Zealand. However, consumption of non-alcoholic drinks has been on the decline. There has been no significant change in the amount of fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, poultry and grocery foods from 2010 to late 2013. The three items that were added to the FPI basket over the period include frozen prawns, packaged leaf salad and breakfast food drinks. The summary of the break-up analysis of consumer expenditure in New Zealand can be presented on a pie chart as shown below.
There has been tremendous increase in sales in the restaurant industry over the years. According to National Restaurant Association (2016), the increase in sales is accompanied by increase in restaurant locations, increase in employees in the restaurant industry and increased number of managers who starts at the entry level. Increase in sales in restaurants almost doubles each ten years. The food and drinks sales have hit the $ 782.7 billion mark in the year 2016 all the way from $42.8 (billions) in 1970 (Ausseil et al. 2013). Further increase is expected in the coming years. This increase in sales in restaurants is enough assurance of how viable and promising it is to invest in the restaurant industry.
The Hospitality Report 2014 summarizes the types of sales that constitute the restaurant industry in New Zealand. The industry is broken into five key areas namely the cafes, take away, catering services, bars and clubs.
According to the table above, the highest performer was ales made in restaurants (Takeaway-Ordering-Benefits, 2015). Take away sales have however continued to increase but at a decreasing rate. This shows that more customers prefer to dine out. Investors can exploit this opportunity by creating comfortable and luxurious dining areas in their restaurants to attract even more sales.
Auckland is the largest urban area in New Zealand. It further extends to towns, rural areas and the Island of Auckland Region (Lu et al. 2013). It is known for its natural beauty as it falls between Pacific Ocean’s Hauraki Gulf on the East, Hunua ranges on the south east, Manukau Harbour on its south west and Waitakere Ranges on the west (Rough Guide 2010).
There are certain factors that are common among Asia’s population particularly in Auckland. According to Asian Health Services (2014), these characteristics are ethnicity, ability to speak in English, most of the resident population was born overseas and population growth. It is the most cosmopolitan city in the country. The population growth prevalent translates to higher demand of food in restaurants. The fact that most of the population is born overseas translates to demand of foreign meals in the restaurants located in Auckland. Auckland has the largest Polynesian population hen compared to all cities in the world (Sacks et al. 2015).
Besides the promises that a business offers there is always the dragging side of it which are the challenges that a business faces. In this case, we are going to look at the common challenges that a restaurant business faces and how the problem can be managed effectively (Hall & Rusher, 2013).
The restaurant sector in Auckland, New Zealand ha posed a great expectation in the city’s wellbeing thus a formidable future if one is keen enough (Baldos & Hertel, 2014). With the demand, sales, income and need of a sustainable source of food supply, it is clear that Auckland is in desperate need of the food industry. This is a good notion for our restaurant once we start it in the region. It will mean that with the estimated success, the restaurant will have a bright future as the restaurant business is there to stay. A lot of stakeholders and private investors have shown interest in investing in the restaurant business as well (NZma News, 2014). The future of restaurant business is also supported by the government’s injection of support through substantial reforms like reduction of legal permit fee for restaurants by 16% and provision of health inspectors on a monthly basis (Asian Health Services, 2014, Chand et al. 2012). With all these positive factors, the restaurant business still stands as one of the most profitable venture to start here in Auckland.
The referenced material here has helped in the following ways:
•Creation of an accountable and reliable source of information in the creation of arguments about the restaurant business.
• An updated account of the restaurant business in Auckland as it stands.
• Credibility of the information as it will help us in having a formidable business plan to execute.
• Warning on the possible challenges and the very was to help evade them in the restaurant business.
• Helping with business creation estimates in terms of figures, costs and time.
According to the above literature review, the restaurant business is blossoming in Auckland. It can be perceived that with most of the features discussed in the literature review in favor of starting a restaurant, we shall take that as a good sign to start one. The factors discussed here have given us an insight to create a working model for the restaurant and how well it will be to be successful in the restaurant industry. After conducting the surveys and information data which was provided by many sites and lots of data, it helps to conclude that the restaurant will be able to make it successfully. The positive factors like the Asian population growth, consumer expenditure on restaurants and the restaurant sales in New Zealand are overwhelming and give hope to the dream of starting a restaurant in this region.
Having seen the theoretical view of a restaurant structure in the literature review part, we proceed to dig for more information but this time through our very own research. The research methodology part below encompasses the research tools we used in retrieving data from respondents, the procedures used to get the samples and various methods of data analysis. Additionally, the chapter considers application of both qualitative and quantitative research methods amid conducting a proper research.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study (Flick, 2015). It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques. In this case these methodological processes are necessary in collecting information and data required for making significant decisions when it comes to starting a restaurant in Auckland business. The methodology could encompass questionnaires, interviews, publication research, surveys, and other research procedures, including both historical and present information.. It fulfils two forms of data that is, primary and secondary data.
can be generally described as exploratory research.
• This type of research is used to gather and clearly understand underlying opinions, motivations and reasons.
• It gives insights into the problem and assists in the development of idea or hypothesis that can used in quantitative research (Qu & Dumay, 2011).
• This research also uncovers opinions and thoughts thus helping to dig deeper into the problem. Researchers can either use semi-structured or unstructured techniques to collect qualitative data. The most common qualitative data collection methods are group discussions also known as focus groups, observations or personal interviews (Yin, 2013).
• The sample size for qualitative research is typically small and participants are selected to fill the quota given.
quantifies the problem by the generation of numerical data that is transformable into usable statistics.
• This type of research quantifies opinions, attitudes, and behaviors among other defined variables (Panneerselvam, 2014).
• It is also used to generalize data from a large sample population. The research uses more structured data collection methods which include various forms of survey like paper surveys, online survey, kiosk survey and mobile survey (Gray, 2013). Other methods include face to face interviews, longitudinal studies, telephone interviews, website interceptors, systematic observations and online polls.
• This type of research uses statistical tests for analysis and has fixed response options (Gray, 2013).
Primary data comprises the collection of the initial information and data. It is in most cases carried out after the researcher has acquired some information about the research problem by studying secondary research or by assessing the previously gathered primary data. Primary data can be acquired through various methods, including interviews, questionnaires and surveys in market research or through direct observations and experiments in sciences in addition to other methods. The primary research has its advantages and disadvantages:
• The researcher can consider both quantitative and qualitative issues.
• The researcher can address particular research problems as they have the control over the research design to suit their requirements.
• Great control; besides having the power over the specific issues the researcher focuses on; the researcher also had the power toregulate how the information is gathered. Therefore, the researcher can dictate the scope of the project, objectives and time frame.
Secondary data entails the data already gathered by a different researcher or it is readily available from other sources for a project researcher. This forms of data have been characterized by their cheapness and ease of access when compared to the primary data, at the same time it can be available where one cannot access the primary data at all. Secondary data is available in different forms. It could include information from the government information and information from the national population census, or information collected in the national museums. The most commonly used form of secondary data is the administrative data. For instance, hospital intakes and discharge records, motor vehicle registrations, university and college admission records, and other records.
The study utilizes both secondary and primary sources of data collection. Primary data through online survey and use of personal interviews. Secondary sources will be through the use of the internet, journal articles and the library all together.
A survey is a measure of experiences and opinions of people through asking questions. Questionnaire is a set of written or printed questions containing choice answers created for a survey. A questionnaire survey is therefore a measure of opinions and experiences of people by the use of a set of questions with choice of answers. Quite often, questionnaires are used in quantitative research doing with both social and marketing research. Questionnaires are the best method of gathering a wide array of information from a big number of people, in most cases called respondents. Sufficient questionnaire development is necessary for the success of a research survey being carried out. Unnecessary questions, incorrect scaling, incorrect ordering of questions, or inappropriate questionnaire format can invalidate the survey, since it may not reflect accordingly the opinions and views of the respondents.
The questionnaire is designed to fulfil the following objectives.
• To determine consumers’ tastes and preferences in Asian meals
• To determine how often meals are taken.
• To come up with an estimation what meals consumers fancy.
• To determine the mode of meals taken by consumers.
• To come up with a monthly estimate of revenues we expect from consumers’ monthly budget on restaurants.
• To know consumers stand in case a new Indian restaurant was started.
• To determine improvement points from the current established Indian restaurants.
A pilot survey is a research strategy that tests questionnaire by use of a smaller sample compared to the sample size that is planned (Arain et al. 2010). The questionnaire is administered to either a convenience sample or a sample population to test its effectiveness.
Secondary sources usually provide an already analyzed set of data, but how really are the responses of the people in the actual world responds? That gives motive for the research to find out from a one on one perspective what the respondents say. The research therefore used online survey as a justification to get a true account of what respondents out there think about the set of questions in our questionnaire regarding an Indian restaurant in Auckland. Additionally, online survey will be fast, cheap and well spread among respondents. This is made possible by the fact that a lot of people have access to the internet and thus making it efficient.
The main online survey was outsourced to www.surveymonkey.com, which carried out the research. The company is a well-recognized statistical survey company thus the drive to use their services.
The groups of participants were targeted from the regions of interest majorly in Auckland. The survey involved 160 participants who were contacted through their respective emails. With the freedom of omitting the questions they preferred, the questionnaire was made simple with straightforward questions at the same time offering choices, hence simplifying it to reduce rates of omitted questions. A questionnaire will be employed for the collection of consumer spending behavior information. The creation of the questionnaire was entirely meant to understand how the potential customers perceived about the Indian and Asian foods and restaurants in Auckland. The first three questions, question 1 to 3, on the questionnaire are structured to question about the social status of the people in the area considering their ages, relationships and gender. This was meant to identify the target group as well as the group that highly depends on the restaurants. The following two questions, question 4 and 5, are structured to find out about the residents’ income and household earnings.
The next questions, questions 21 to 26, finds out more about the location of the restaurant based on residents’ preference, their view on the Indian and Asian restaurants and their increasing numbers, and also finds about their perceptions about the Indian restaurants. Finally, question 27 was designed to find out about the best way to spread and advertise about Biryani products and services.
There are numerous advantages of using questionnaires during survey. First, questionnaires are practical and can collect lots of information from a large population (Ho, 2014). The questionnaires can also be handled by anyone without losing their reliability and validity (O'Rourke, 2001). Quantification of the results obtained from a questionnaire is also quick and easy either by the researcher or by the use of a software. Results can also be scientifically and objectively analyzed. The quantified data can either be used to measure change or compared with other research. The data can also be used to develop new theories and test various hypotheses.
According to Gray (2013) random selection is the best sampling method to stick to when it comes to a large set of a population target. It minimizes bias and strengthens reliability of the research process (Flick, 2015). In this case, the sample of the participants are the restaurant consumers. The data obtained from the Restaurant Association would greatly help in categorizing the customers. My preferred sample size is 200-250 persons. However, the number would depend on the number of customers that the outsourcing company (Survey Monkey) would reach online. The recommendation was however 200-250 people.
The outsourced company (Survey Monkey) is expected to carry out the analysis of data after conducting the online survey. The company has a good reputation for carrying out research and also analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data.
An interview is a verbal conversation between two or more people with an aim of collecting information that is useful for the research (Brinkmann, 2014). The researcher asks the respondent certain questions with the objective of capturing the story behind the experiences of the participant. The interviewer achieves this by pursuing in-depth information regarding the topic. It can also be some sort of a follow up to respondents.
• One of the advantages of an interview is that the interviewer receives direct feedback from the respondent and that the interviewer is able to give help and clarifications in cases of apprehensions regarding confidentiality and misconceptions (Levashina, 2014).
• The interviewer can also probe in cases where the respondent’s answers are unclear or too brief.
• The interviewer is also able to get the cooperation of respondents without straining their patience.
• The interviewer is also able to ensure that the respondent responds to all questions (Levashina, 2014).
• The interviewer can show props and visual ads to help the respondent in answering the questions.
• There is also high participation for both the interviewer and the respondent.
The sample representative of the research respondents is targeted to me 100+ people to create a wide range of responses and reduce bias of the research. Additionally with a well-represented sample, validity of the research results is ensured and that is what the research aimed. With random selection of interviewees, we believe the sample to be well represented.
I did the interview, and the best time of day to carry out the interviews was during day time when most people are on their daily operations in the city. The questions asked are the same as the ones used in online survey and they are attached in the appendix.
In this process, I will make use of software that will simplify my work. Many cheap software are available in the market. However, this specific software is efficient for use especially in a big place like Auckland. This software will also assist me in generating the survey forms. Data will be availed from B2B INFOSOFT, Noida, India and will have all the information regarding the residents of Auckland. The interview would involve people from all walks of life. They range from children, women and men who have at one time in their life dined in the restaurants in Auckland. I would send a mail to the residents with the link taking them directly to the survey forms with both easy and multiple choices. The residents will be promised a reward upon completion to motivate them.
The primary research method will be the use of interview. The focus groups in this case are the food consumers who use restaurants as their primary sources. Additionally, those consumers who have a preference for Asian and Indian meals. I will be carrying out the research so the research cannot afford to accommodate panel interviews. Since the focus group has the highest tendency and like for the Indian and Asian cuisines at the same time they frequent the restaurants they are more reliable. The information gathered from this group can be highly dependable for evaluating the outcome from the online survey. However, in the cases of bias then the information could have been compromised. The interview questions subjected to this focus group were similar to the ones used in the online survey, hence even finding the variation made simpler. The interviews were done during the daytime while the interviewees were on their daily duties. The interviewees were asked questions as the interviewer marked and picked the related answers on the question paper. The information gathered was valid for use in the business analysis.
Interviewing bias refers to any irregularity or misconduct that happens during the interviewing process and has the ability to change the interview outcomes (Levashina et al. 2014). Interview is one of the most reliable sources of data collection but it can also be accompanied by a breach of the required criteria to alter the results. Some of the possible interview bias include:
• Stereotyping – having a mental judgment on respondents of a certain age, race, sex or religion.
• Inconsistency in questioning: when the interviewer is asking different questions to different respondents (Valley City State University, 2013).
• First impressions bias – making a clouded judgment either positive or negative on a respondent depending on how the interviewer saw the respondent (Valley City State University, 2013).
• Negative emphasis – rejection of data without careful involvement of its validity.
• Cultural noise – favouring data of the respondents who come from the same race, tribe or culture (Valley City State University, 2013).
• Non-verbal bias – non-related issues like how a person talks, appearance and such non-related interview deciders.
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