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    Ana Maria Ciubotary Organisational Behavior

    Ana Maria Ciubotary Organisational Behavior


    Ana Maria Ciubotary Organisational Behavior


    Leadership style is a style where a person becomes a leader provides a direction, implements a plan, motivates his subordinates to perform better in an organization. The success of any company depends on how capable is the leader in solving issues and moulding employees to work in their set standards. Motivation is inner desire, an inspiring force which arouses will to work and achieve a goal. Motivation creates such an environment in the company that employees work on their own to fulfil the desire of the place where they are working and achieves predetermined targets. Motivation can be related to monetary needs like bonus, promotion as well as non monetary needs like appreciation of work. In this assignment we will study about the leadership styles and motivational techniques used in Apple. (Johnson, n.d.)

    Apple in a multinational American Company founded in 1976. Its basic business was to make and sell computers. Now it is into electronics, computers, i phone, software. It is second largest company in generating revenue in the world. It has strong customer base and a brand name. Apple has adopted democratic style of leadership under which it gives power to its employees to take their own decision. It also follows various motivational techniques to arise the will to perform best by the employees. (Reuters, n.d.)

    TASK 1

    1.1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organization.

    A leader with his effective working style has a direct impact on an organisation’s achievement. Leaders adopt different leadership styles according to culture and goals of the organization. The leadership style varies according to necessary tasks to be completed and departmental needs of the firm.

    Different Leadership Styles are:-

    Laissez faire: The leaders who exercise this style are very motivational and have a perfect vision. Under this the leader does not provide direct supervision and regular feedback to its employees. For this an employee has to be highly experienced and trained not requiring much supervision but not all employees have those characteristics. They make their subordinates independent to take decisions and set goals to achieve them. They motivate employees from time to time and give advices when needed. They have full control over the employees who are subjected to punishments.

    Autocratic: Under this style managers take their own independent decisions without the consultation of others. Managers have total authority and freedom to impose their will on employees. No one can challenge the decisions and powers of autocratic leader. There is no motivation among the employees. The employees are given targets to achieve failing which leads to punishment. Goals are set by the higher authorities. The managers are strict in their action and are not ready to accept changes from the lower level of management. The channel of communication is one way from higher authority to subordinate level.

    Participative: It is called democratic leadership style, it gives importance to  team members decision  but the process  of making the final decision rests with the leader. This leadership motivates employee as employees make contributions to the decision-making which makes them feel part of the organization. The channel of communication is two ways from higher level to lower level. Both the level understands each-others point of view.

    Transactional: Under this employees receive certain tasks to perform and managers provide rewards or punishments to them based on performance results. Leaders and employees set their predetermined goals together and employees agree to follow the direction of the manager to complete those goals and get rewards. The control and command is direct.

    Transformational: This leadership style is based on communication channel from management to lower level for meeting organizational goals. Leaders motivate employees to increase their productivity and efficiency. The leaders make policies for their employees considering their point of view. Various motivational factors are used to make employees work hard. (Mind Tools, n.d.)

    1.2 Explain how the organizational theory underpins the practice of management.

    The success of the firm depends on the culture and the structure of the business. The company can motivate its employees if it has a great culture. Apple is using scientific management approach and performing functions like organizing, controlling, coordinating, planning. The management theory of FW Taylor is been applied which helps to improve the efficiency of the employees. 

    Advantages of using organizational theory by Apple:

    • To improve workers job and to make management get the best from their worker.
    • To make productivity effective.
    • The management adopts more positive attitude in leadership.
    • It helps in improving physical working environment for the employees.

    For this different approaches are been followed like human relations approach which states people are emotional rather than rational. Organizations are social systems comprising of  informal structures, rules, and  regulation ,norms as well as formal procedures.

    People look for profit and long term running in an organization in order to perform well. So to improve the performance and efficiency, the firm should be managed properly, which is done by using different management thoughts or theories. (McAuley, Duberley and Johnson, 2007)

    1.3 Evaluate different approaches to management used by different organization.

    There are different approaches to management like:

    • Human Behaviour Approach: It says that human behaviour can be used in making people work efficiently in the organization. An individual behaviour is influenced by his attitude, nature, conflicts of cultural environment. It emphasise on increasing productivity through motivation and healthy human relations. This follows motivation, leadership and communication.
    • Social System Approach: The managers operate in social system and the organization succeeds if the demands of the society are met. Cooperation among team members is necessary for realization of organization objectives.
    • Socio –Technical System Approach: Under this Social system, the organization is ruled by social laws and Technical systems that use technological forces like procedures and rules. The social and technical systems of the organization works with these two factors.
    • Decision Theory Approach:  the managers of the organization take decision in the organization.
    • Management Science Approach: Management uses various mathematical approach like operation research, tools and models to solve problem.
    • System Approach:  A system includes a combination of subsystems. Each part has various sub-parts. An organization is a system of made up of dependent parts, each of which includes many subsystems. Firm uses it to solve problems. (Catalogue Pearsoned, n.d.)

    TASK 2

    2.1 Compare and contrast different organizational structure and culture.

    Organizational structure: It is the form of structure which determines the level and the reporting structure in the organization. It relates to the flow of  information within the company.

    An Organizational structure includes:

    Work specialization: It refers to the process in which tasks in the organization are divided in to person capable of performing it.

    Departmentalization: This is been done to coordinate common task. In this work or individuals are grouped into manageable units or parts.
    Chain of command: It is the formal line of command, authority, communication, and responsibility within firm.

    Span of Control: In a business there are managers and subordinates. Subordinates are controlled by the managers. Span of control relates to controlling.

    Organizational Culture: Culture refers to the norms, values and behaviour used by the members of organization during working. Members of an organization follow a particular culture. Every firm has different culture depending upon their working and the nature of their business. The culture of organization states the environment and working behaviour of employees.

    Types of culture:-

    Role culture: In this organizations are divided into various functions and each individual is assigned a particular role. The role culture includes the benefit of specialization.
    Task culture
    : It is a team based approach to complete a particular task. Team is been given a task to perform basis on which they are rewarded.

    Person culture: They are found in charities or non profit organization.

    The organizational structure and culture applies to companies, corporations, non profit organizations, government. They affect the organizational performances like good working culture will have positive working environment in which the employees will work. The organization culture and structure have great impact on the attitude and behaviour of employees. (Tharp, n.d.)

    2.2 Explain the relationship between an organization’s structure and cultureand the effects on the performance of business.

    Organizational Structure and Culture includes various concepts, strategies, and situations which affect planning in the organization. The organizational structure and culture applies to companies, corporations, governments.

    Organizational structure and culture affects the progress of organization both the ways. In the positive way it makes the organization different to the other who has no culture and structure. It defines the limitation of the firm. It makes the employees know each other for the success and achievement of goals. It can bring stability in the organization. It also provides appropriate standards of working environment.

    Every firm has different policies rules and regulations that the employee has to follow in the chain of command. The organization tells about the responsibilities that who will be reporting to which manager and who will be responsible to whom in this kind of organization.

    Culture and structure has some drawbacks from business point of view. If the organization culture is too complex then in the firm decisions will require time and also there will be one authority at the centre level in decision making in which the lower level employees do not participate. The same culture has no values when the employees do not agree to share their views with others which raise conflicts among them. (Bianca, n.d.)

    2.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work.

    All individuals are different and behave differently in an environment when given to work. There are many factors which influence the behaviour of an individual. But the important one is personality and Perception of views and facts.

    Personality is the different traits which are possessed by individual like thinking and the nature of a person and attitude and his relations with the others. There are two main points which influence personality are heredity and environment. It includes five factors of personality dimension known as OCEAN which influences behaviour at work. Neuroticism tells about the effectiveness in work and controlling of emotions and senses in a body. If  it is high in a body then it shows nervousness and instability when it is of low levels it shows confidence emotional stability, good performance.

    Extraversion states that in high level a person is full of energy or if it is in low level then described as quite, shyness and unsocial behaviour.

    Agreeableness states that it’s good to have high agreeableness because it makes kindness friendly and a team working attitude.

    A person having traits of this personality will have positive attitude in life, will believe in team work, work for the organization, achieve goals and follow the norms and values. (Management Study Guide, n.d.)


    TASK 3

    3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change.

    Leadership means managing and leading ability of an individual to manage an individual or a group of people. Leadership, motivation and organisationgo hand in hand. Leadership and performance of the organisation has a positive relationship which means if the leadership style of Apple is effective the performance of the organisation will also flourish. The leadership style encourages the employees of the organisation which yield in the better performance of the organisation. The leadership style which Apple employs in their organisation are: -

    ·         Persuasive: - in persuasive leadership style the power is in the hands of top management because of the qualities possessed by them and they delegate the authority at the time of requirement felt by the management of the organisation. In this style of leadership it’s valuable in Apple because it assist the corporation in satisfying the objectives and goals, this will also enhance the performance of Apple.

    ·         Democratic: -in this type of leadership style facilitates coordination and corporation among the employees and the management of the organisation. In Apple the CEO of the organisation Mr. Tim Cook encourages its employees to takes part in the management decision making.

    Motivation is defined as an art of stimulating people to get the desired thing done. A motive is a need or desire which stimulates and directs human behaviour. Motivation involves the creation of a positive will and desire among the workers to do their work in the best manner. Apple feels that employees are an integral part of the organisation and plays a very vital role in the performance of the business organisation. The Motivation theories which are employed by Apple are: -

    ·         Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory: -

    (Source: http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2010/06/maslow-hierarchy-of-needs-theory-of.html)

    The Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory is divided into 5 stages: -

    o   Psychological Needs: - Apple believes that they ought tobe employee centrewhich means food, clothing and shelter this will motivate the employees in better performance.Apple should help the employees in fulfilling the needs of the employees.

    o   Safety Needs: -the safety needs means the working condition within the organisation, the behaviour of management towards the employees and safety of employees in the organisation.

    o   Social Needs: -the culture of Apple and the environment which the organisation provides to its employees, the communication between the management and the employees of the organisation. Maintaining the relationship between the workers and supervisors. 

    o   Esteem Needs: -these needs come under higher-order needs to fulfil these needs Apple provides bonus to its employees.  

    o   Self-Actualization Needs: -these needs consider the education and development of the employees of the organisation. For Apple they should focus on employee development and training so that they feel satisfied and yield better results for the organisation. (Management of Apple Inc. n.d)

    3.2 Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace.

    There are various Motivation theories which the organisation can adopt in their organisation to motivate its employees which will enhance the performance of the overall organisation. The Motivation theories are as follows: -

    ·         Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory: -this theory is divided into 5 stages

    o   Psychological Needs

    o   Safety Needs

    o   Social Needs

    o   Esteem Needs

    o   Self-Actualization Needs

    These needs include the basic needs of any human being to the most higher-order need which includes education and development of the individual. The basic needs or the psychological needs are to be fulfilling first and then only the employees feels motivated. (Education Portal, 2009)

    ·         Herzberg’s Motivation – Hygiene Theory: -According to this theory there are some conditions or attributes which are necessary to be fulfilled without which the employee cannot be motivated. The different conditions are: -

    o   Technical Supervision

    o   Salary

    o   Safety at work

    o   Status (Pay Scale Human Capital, 2009)

    ·         X and Y Theory: -this theory is divided into two parts, they are: -