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In the report, the focus will be shed on the social vs medical framework and the ways in which the young offenders can have a significant impact on self-harm. The young offenders face various difficulties from multiple sources along with several legal systems, poor transition, and untreated mental problems.  Along with this, there are other barriers that create a significant impact on them such as the absence of effective coordination among services, absence of transition preparation and long waiting queue. Furthermore, in the coming pages, the report will discuss the impacts that the young offenders have when treating them as a prisoner along with the ways in which the Scandinavian prisoners helps in prisoners with rehabilitation. 

Social vs medical model

There are various models which can be used for describing the young offenders and the most frequently used models are social and medical model. The medical model of young offenders is considered as a problem which belongsto the disabled people. This is not observed as an issue that would concern anyone other than the person who is affected (Gottlieb et al. 2016). Whereas, the social young offenders would eventually see the reason behind the barriers. The model basically enlists the idea that it is the society that sees individuals as disable through providing every means to meet the demands of the people who are not in actual offenders. Along with this, there is a certain range of recognition within this model which states that society does a number of things to reduce as well as completely eliminate the barriers (Chen et al. 2017).

The young offender developed certain social models of young offenders as the traditional medical model does not discuss the previous experience of the reason for young offenders. Barriers in the society are just not in the form of young offenders. The attitudes which are commonly seen as in the society are typically based on prejudice and hence, it is important to provide the young offenders with equal opportunities in society. The young offenders who have committed crimes should be given an equal opportunity to establish themselves (Daniluk and Koert, 2016). The medical model describes the young offenders as fixed and can be changed by the medical treatments which are available. These are even given when the differences do not produce any significant pain or illness.

The medical model approach is basically based on the belief that the various difficulties which are related to the young offenders are totally borne by them and it is the person itself that has to undergo changes through extra effort. This would help the person in ensuring the fact that it does not cause any kind of inconvenience to others (Wear et al. 2017). Whereas, the social model is considered as a more inclusive approach and a proactive is provided to the people regarding the ways in which the proactive people can actively participate within the activities of equal footing in association with people who are not offender. Along with this, certain adjustments are also made money and them so as o ensure the fact that disabled people are not removed from the list. The majority of the people are trying to adopt a social model and make adjustments with the individuals who have some difficulties (Isba et al. 2017). An important practice that is followed in this regard by the social model is that the individuals should be respected in any situation irrespective of the relevance of young offenders.

Impact on young offenders who are miles away from home

There is a significant impact of distance on the young offenders who are in custody and are away from home. In recent years, there has been a significant reduction in the number of young offenders who are held in custody. For some of the children, going for custody comes for the first time and for some its is a series of as usualplacements in the children's homes (Lindsey et al. 2017). Families who visit less in the custody homes have a negative impact on the children and it has been found that distance makes it quite tough to meet the child for family and maintain their relationships. In this section, the impact of distance from home on the daily life activities of children will be explored. Children who are held away from their home has some of the fewer visits from the family as well as friends. And it is due to costs and traveling time which makes the visits much more hectic in nature. This created a negative impact on the children who are facing.

The children who were in the custody close to their home find it as an advantage they can easily move back totheirhome on their release. At the same time, it became quite harder to put the children at the release state whose homes are far away from custody. Several elements namely family mediation work and also by the gate work is considered as the most difficult when a large distance gets involved (Ladlowand Neale, 2016). However, family involvement and assistance post realize was always seen as a welcoming element whenever there was the availability of little hope. Around 13,00 children were sampled to detention as well as training order and had undergone release in England and Wales during the year 2013 to 14. This demonstrated that there is a recognizable link between distance from the home during the custody and the chances of a recall to the post custody release.  

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Serious assaults to child in custody

(Source: Vogeland South, 2016)

Around half of the children who are at custody felt unsafe at the YOI irrespective if the distance from their home. Distance was thus not the major factor that would predict the situation they were undergoing (Armstrong et al. 2018). It might be that they have undergone victimization from the various children and whether they were treated with respect by the staff or being restrained.


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Assaults on prisoners and staffs

(Source: Unruh et al. 2018)


The caseworkers observed that the benefits which the children have in being away from the gang influences or the area where the offense has attracted the attention of the locals. It has also been observed that the children who are away from any kind of previous influences and significantly gets the chance to be mature. Some children find it easy in being away from home as there might be some sort of frustration lying on the other side of the boundary (Unruh et al. 2018). The individuals who had report some problems with the gangs were placed closer to their home in comparison to those young children that were involved with the gangs due to the geographic location of YOIs.



Flexible as well as imaginative solution must be used for mitigating the issues related to lack of visits for the children and family who find it difficult to visits due to distance or any other factors. Furthermore, the children should be provided with phone calls to the care providers in case of a lack of visits. It is important to implement technologies that would enable the children in custody to establish contact whenever there is a need external professional (Young et al. 2017). Furthermore, the children should also be given the opportunity to illustrate their feelings regarding distance custody from their home and the various negative impact they are presently experiencing.

Self-harm by Adult men in prison

The understanding regarding self-harm in adult men in the prison was improved through a rapid evidence assessment. This developed the idea as well as the action regarding the management as well as treatment of the self-harm in prisons. The importance is given to the trends in the self-harm activities. There is a number of risk factors for the men who are engaged in the self-harm activities in prison however, there are a smaller number of protective factors and the underlying relationship between the risk factors as well as the protective factors (Gardner et al. 2016). These factors include socio-demographic factors, prison associated factors, and psychiatric factors. The socio-demographic factors include age, ethnicity educational background, and relationship status.

As far as the prison associated factors are concerned, it briefly includes the people who are at risk of self-harm, greater risk of people who are unsentence or people serving a life sentence. Along with this, there is greater self-harm among the prisoners who have disciplinary infractions. The psychiatric factors include the pasthistory of self-harm, depression, substance misuse and so on.


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Graph showing the number of assaults happening to child

(Source: Howardand Pope, 2019)


The term self-harmrefers to the act wherein the prisoner deliberately harms themselves of injuries such as punching a wall, suffocation, and swallowing. The incidence of self-harm is everyday rising and especially among the adult males. However, as per the custody statistics, it has been found that rates of self-harm among women have declined to 40% over the last seven years. In spite of the previous fall, the rates of self-harm among women are going higher than the males and have created a level of disproportion of self-harm in prison. As far as the safety is considered in the custody statistics, the male and female statistics vary significantly differs with nature along with the frequency (de Motteet et al. 2017). Women are engaged in self-harm incidents where the severity of harm among men tends to be more severe in relation to the injuries. As far as the changing trends in the prison are considered, the men and women should be taken as a separate population along with the strategies with respect to self-harm as well as suicide prevention. 


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Statistics showing the level of self-harm among men and women

(Source: Favrile, 2019)

The nature of the self-harming cations can be differentiating on the basis of the suicidal intention behind the behavior as well as the lethality associated with that behavior. On comparing the characteristics and other prison-related variables in relation to the prisoners who undergo self-harm, it has been concluded that intentional suicidal commitment when associated with the younger brother, leads to disciplinary acts the prisoner has psychopathic traits and they carry such activities without the involvement of any pain. It has also been found that there are basically major motivational spheres which are featured to the responses or the emotions for the suicidal attempts.


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