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 Introduction 

For generating a high-speed connectivity across all the several end stations situated in the data link layer, the layer 2 form of switches are usually installed to allow such connections. Whereas the layer 3 switches are considered to a very new strategy or phenomenon. In this study, investigation will be done on the various kinds of security threats related to the layer 2 and layer 3 network switching and its associated mitigation techniques. The various types of layer 2 and layer 3 attacks will be discussed here and its prevention strategies will also be implemented.
Scope
The scope of the above project is to discuss the switches in layers 2 and 3 and then investigate the associated security threats linked with the given layers. The prevention strategies of those attacks or threats will also be implemented in order to overcome the risks of security. 
 Rationale
 In the recent days, it has been seen   that organisations are facing immense of problems   while transfer of data from one end server to another.   This is so because the sender of the data is not as   much efficient as required. This is creating a great   mishap hence, it is essential to nullify such   circumstances so that data transfer can occur   properly. This is the main issue that has led to the   growth of huge concern among the top management   of organisations. The following research sheds light   upon the several security threats that are imposed   upon layer 2 and layer 3 switch block mitigation   strategy.
 Aim
  The aim of the study is to investigate the security   risks that are imposed upon the layer 2 and layer 3 switch blocks mitigation strategy.
Objectives
To analyse the importance of security for the confidential data so that it can be safeguarded from wrong hands
To understand the ways by which threats to security can be removed from layer 2 and layer 3 switch blocks mitigation strategy
To identify the effectiveness of layer 2 and layer 3 switches for entities so that high speed connectivity can be assured between end stations
To recommend the ways of uplifting the hardware requirements of any virtual LAN so that switches can be efficiently used
Research questions
1. What is the importance of securing confidential data for any enterprise?
2. How can threats to security be removed from layer 2 and layer 3 switch block mitigation strategy?
3. How is the effectiveness of layer 2 and layer 3 switches determined in terms of high speed connectivity?
4. What are the ways by which hardware requirements of any virtual LAN be uplifted for enhancing the efficiency of the switches?
Literature review
Concept of Layer 2 and Layer 3 switches
Both this two kind of layer are connected with the network communication and with the help of this kind of network layer it is possible to communicate with the OSI model.
Basically the  layer 2 is  totally responsible  for physical addressing  and  preparing  any  kind  of  information and at the same  with the  help of this layer  it  is possible to  perform the error  correction.
According to the concept of layer 3 it is possible to logical addressing and IP routing. Apart from that some other routing is ARP, IGRP, RIP etc. 
From the concept of layer 2 it can be constructed that this network protocols forwards all the traffic and at the same time DHCP and ARP broadcasts.  According to this concepts or main advantage of this concept is that any packet data that are transmitted by one device is also forwarded on another device. According to the   concept it can  also be  constructed that  layer   2  required   lower   costs and at the same  time it  does  not  require  routing  gear (Nunes et al. 2014).
On  the other hand it can also be stated  that  layer 2 have  some  major  drawbacks and that  are  lack  of route hardware and  flat subnet  configuration  across the  multiple  sites.  Therefore  in case  of  layer  2 network protocol  when size of  network get two  large  then  it will reduces  the  efficiency of  the network. It is happen due to effect of broadcast traffic.
 From the concept of layer 3 network protocol it can be constructed that it basically restricts al the traffic such as DHCP and ARP.  With  the help of  this  kind of approaches it is possible to reduce  all  the  network  traffic by dividing the  particular network in sub- network (Jain, & Paul, 2013) .
On the other hand  it can also  be  suggested  that the most  vulnerability factor that are  present  in the layer 3 network protocols is  the IP address hacking and if  the IP  address  of  a particular  network get hacked then  it will creates major problems.
 
Layer 2 and layer 3 attacks and mitigation techniques
In case of OSI layer there is more possibility of lower level attack and if this kinds of attacks took place then upper or higher layer also get affected. According to the network layer protocols layer 2 is very weak link therefore level of security is very lower in comparison to other layer. If the security is not provided properly then data communication and data transfer get highly affected. In order to mitigate   this kind of problem the most important thing is reduced the network traffic that can create major problem and decreases the network efficiency. By  reducing  network  traffic  it  is  possible  to avoid  any  kind  network attacks. 
In case  of  layer 3  network protocol  basically  high  performance  network  routing  is  used  with a  specific IP address. Therefore the most  vulnerability factor that are  present  in the layer 3 network protocols is  the IP address hacking and if  the IP  address  of  a particular  network get hacked then  it will creates major problems(Yan et al. 2016) . 
In order to avoid this kind of security issue or to mitigate the technique the most important thing that needs to maintain is the proper protection of IP address. If  the IP address of  any  particular network get properly secured  then it is  very difficult  to  create any kind of  security issue  and with  the  help[-of this approaches  it is possible to  protect  the layer 3  network architecture. 
Countermeasures for the attacks
In order to counter measure the attacks especially the ARP attacks it requires some proper configuration. In order to counter measure the attacks the following steps need to be maintained DHCP snooping must need to configure because with the help of this binding table need to be build. After that most important that is required is the configuration is the DAI. This configuration must need to be performed by the VLAN (Nadeem & Howarth, 2013). After that in order to maintain all the varieties in between the entire platform DHCP need to be configured properly. In order countermeasure the attacks static and dynamic entries in a specific DHCP is mostly required.   
Research Gap
The entire study is focused completely upon OSI network model, which can be considered as a demerit for the articles. This is so because whenever question of other network model will arise, these articles will become inadequate supplier of information. Along with that, it is completely focused on layer 2 and layer 3 switches thereby, neglecting other layers of network.
Methodology
The research will be conducted by using positivism philosophy because the researcher will be able to conduct the research by inclining realistic facts towards this research. Such steps would assist in executing the research in a systematic manner. This philosophy is accounted by numerous scientific views that would be a great help while conduction of research. 
Deductive approach will be used by the researcher because the researcher is not going to come up with any new theory rather existing theories will be reviewed. Such approach is where existing theories are tested is mentioned as deductive approach. Since the researcher will analyse the present theories or concepts related to IT, deductive approach will be undertaken by the researcher.
Exploratory design will be used by researcher because the researcher will identify such issues that have not been clearly focused on earlier. This mentioned design would assist in collecting secondary data in an appropriate manner. These criteria will aid the researcher to undertake such methodologies for the current research.
Secondary data collection method will be undertaken by the researcher as relevant data can be easily gathered from several books, journals and websites. Superior data regarding the research topic related to the security threats of layer 2 and layer 3 switches will be gathered from the online articles. This would help in finding out relevant data regarding the topic. Since thematic analysis will be undertaken by the researcher, proper emphasis will be laid upon examining the collected data, prioritising those and record proper patterns within the collected information. Such aspects would help in gaining a suitable insight regarding the data related to the topic.  Though this analysis is less acknowledged among researcher yet for this particular research, such analysis will provide the notable assistance.
The researcher will consider some ethics while collection of information. Researcher will not undertake any illegal means for gathering the data. As per the Data Protection Act of 1998, information collected will be safeguarded properly and will be not be lost.
Conclusion
The study showed the ways by which security threats can be removed from the different layers of switches. Such activity would help in protecting the data from being lost or being imparted into improper hands. It is essential that enterprises need to be much concerned regarding their security policies. This would help in safeguarding the privacy of the data. Moreover, concepts of both layer 2 and layer 3 models are clearly stated in the coursework along with its importance.  
 
 
 
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