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Review Of Operations Management And Project Life Cycle


Case study of Cadbury 

The success of Cadburys located under their management skills. The management tries to use a different type of management to bring out the best achievement goals for their firm as well as for their labor. 


Cadbury has an extensive term past, back over 200 years toward its origins in 1824. Cadbury is well known in the market as a powerful, most famous brand of chocolate. Cadbury has made time-honored itself in all areas of its primary market chocolate. Everyday Cadbury brand is enjoyed through millions of people. 

The main causes of Achievements


The major causes aimed at Cadbury's achievement is the business's lasting plus continued key product lines just as the heritage as well as Cadburys Milk Tray. Milk Tray is one and the same with worth, luxury as well as excess, in addition, the most famous series of advertisements that have been crossed various eras and been watched through above one generation of customers. One more cause for Cadbury's sustained development and progress has been toward the inside of other traits of the confection market just like gum, the solo profligate growing item of confection in the square.




Cadburys is the most important source of chocolate that might be pretentious in the extensive period by means of people pursue to settle their consumption practices. They pursue to remove

observed dangers as well as absolutions that for numerous would exist chocolate. If Cadburys wants to stay in a way of competition so, they have to search for a marketing tactic in route through a variety of products that suitable in these social observations over and done with near to the ground fat selection components as well as also endorse and show that these absolutions can be part of a healthy nutritional way of life (Ajibola & Njogo, 2013). 


(PLC) project management life cycle 

It is necessary to understand the project management life cycle if you are working on a small project through small business objectives or a large, multi-departmental scheme through extensive business suggestions. Each project contains its necessary targets at the start, in the central, as well as in the last stage. Following is a pathway from the initial stage to achievement in the direction of appraisal (Burke & R, 2013). 

Understanding of the project management cycle before you start the work may assist you to stay your project planned as well as on track from conception to achievement.  

The stages of the project management life cycle: 

Usually, the plan or project management life cycle PLC is described into four stages: beginning or launch, preparation or planning, implementation, as well as conclusion. These steps take your project successfully to its initial stage toward the end of project. Although, few methodologies include the fifth stage in the project management life cycle which is known as controlling or monitoring. For our intentions, this stage is enclosed under the implementation along with conclusion stages. 

1. Beginning / Launch 

The first stage that is known as a beginning stage in a project helps you to identify a business necessitates, crisis, along with inspirational traditions that your team can assemble this need, resolve this crisis, or grab this prospect. For the duration of this step, you identify the main goals

of your project, decide whether the project is practicable, as well as understand the most important expected outcome for the project. 

Cadbury promotion generated a stagy or dramatic change towards the direction in which chocolates remained observed. Cadbury Dairy Milk has progressively become locked up as compensation or inducement for youngsters, in addition, this promotion unchained the product through repositioning it. Cadbury Dairy Milk in a new way makes itself as the shared good feelings, flawless appearance of impulsive, given that the ‘actual taste of life’ practices. 

2. Preparation / Planning 

After going through first stage as the plan is accepted to progress onward established on your industry circumstance, deposition of work, or project beginning document, you move about into the preparation stage. In this stage, you collapse the superior project into minor responsibilities, put together your panel, as well as organize a plan for the achievement of assignments. Throughout this stage, you create minor goals inside the superior project, be sure that each is attainable into the time outline. Minor or Smaller goals should have a high prospective for success. Cadbury in 1998, the subsequent stage of growth for the product split through promoting ingesting in social background, for the most part in supplementary customary locations just similar parties, weddings. By means of the promotion ‘Khaanein waallon ko Kahane in ka bahana chahiye’ containing Cyrus Broacha, Cadbury Dairy Milk directed to significantly increase perception stages. The promotion started alongside the award-winning promotion as well as the media approach was to let the two coexist in the direction of a collective visualization ‘A Cadbury in every pocket’. 

3. Implementation 

Now you have successfully received your business approval, developed a plan, as well as built your team to work. Now it is time to acquire the work. The implementation stage moves your plan toward achievement. In this stage of the (PLC) the project management life cycle the plan executive’s job is to maintain work on pathway, put in order the team members, supervise timelines or framework, as well as make sure that the work is completed according to the original plan and original arrangement.

The dispute argument ensued in Cadbury’s product appearance taking a defeat. They forced to remind us as a collection of chocolates. Further steps were taken in the manner of changing packaging. For adding reliability in its field, Cadbury acquired approach to Amitabh Bachan’s deep baritone. At this time, Cadbury first time used a celebrity to support Cadbury Dairy Milk. The commercial did miracles to take customer’s confidence. 

4. Conclusion 

After when your team goes through all above stages in a project, you enter the last conclusion stage. Within the conclusion stage, you have to provide last solutions, discharge project assets, as well as conclude the success of the project. When the project is over it doesn’t mean that the project manager’s job is also, there are further important things which need to be done successfully, it may also include the evaluating in the project. 

To bring back to its previous position and being top in the market of sweets Cadbury used different strategies. They showed ads that bring back the viewers. But, it is the recent string of “Shubh Aarambh” ads that have brought back the old charm of Cadbury Dairy Milk with its very interesting vision of involvement the traditional or old with the fresh age (Stark & J, 2015).


Methodologies used in project Management 

Come into existence a lot of methodologies that have been choosing from, respectively through their principles particular set of rules, practices, and processes. Your undertaking project is depending entirely on the methodology that you have been choosing from different methodologies. One thing that you should have to know that is while there are numerous methodologies have to be choosing from, there is no such thing as the “correct” methodology. It means that there won’t be a single methodology that is perfect to use for each project. Projects vary in scope and a requirement, which means the right methodology to implement, will also vary (Fernández & Sánchez, 2010). 

Here, some famous methodologies are described.


This type of methodology is covered through five ethics: courage, commitment, openness, focus, as well as respect. Its main aim is to progress, distribute, then endure multifaceted or complicated products over teamwork, responsibility, in addition, repetitive development. 


It is the most famous or well-known project management methodology. Agile is finest suitable for the plans that are repetitive as well as progressive. It is the most common type of process where demands in addition to solutions changeover the cooperative struggle of self-organizing along with multipurpose squads as well as their customs. Initially it was developed as a result of the reaction to the shortages of the Waterfall process. Agile project management stalks as of the standards besides principles of the Agile Strategy. 


Kanban is one more popular agile framework that can be related to Scrum, emphases on initial announcements through cooperative besides self-managing squads. It is an apperception that established on the invention track of Toyota factories in the 1940s, it is very pictorial method which targets to provide high-quality consequences by drawing a picture of the implementation of tasks procedure thus the blockages can be identified earlier on its development process. 

Six Sigma 

Six Sigma is firstly presented through engineers at Motorola in 1986. Its ambitions are to increase excellence by decreasing the number of faults in a procedure by recognizing that what is not working properly after that take out it from the process. It used quality management method that is frequently experimental as well as numerical, in addition to the capability of people who are more efficient in such methods. 


The waterfall is another type of management tool. It has absence of elasticity in its proposal variations in the former phases of the growth procedure. It is classified among the traditional project management methodologies. The waterfall is a shortest, successive project tactic in which the progress runs move down in one way just as a waterfall (Ecological & Indicators, 2017).

Project Management Tools: 

Project management comprises appreciative an extensive diversity of all the topics from people administration to approach, number champing to IT to infrastructures. All of these distinct features of a successful business come with their specific tools. Here, some of the most important tools which are used as project management tools. 

Gantt chart 

Gantt chart is an excessive project preparation instrument. Subsequently, it denotes the project timetable as bar charts which spread out above a timeframe. By representing alteration in the colors as well as in the span of the bar chart supports the project managers to recognize interruptions or agenda excess in the project. 

Network Diagram: 

The next tool of management is a network diagram. These diagrams are one of the most important project management tools that a project manager wants to use in project preparation. Sometimes it is also denoted as an “Arrow” diagram for the reason of its usage of arrows to join actions as well as to denote preference along with correlation within the actions of the project. 

Project Documentation 

Project Documentation talks about generating documents that give the information that is needed in a project. This type of documents remains to increase enhanced understanding of the project, clash among sharing plans, and status for the project. It is difficult to document throughout all the stages of a project. It may also help the project teams to attain a mutual acceptance of the basic necessities within a project as well as the position of the project. 

(WBS) Work Breakdown Structure 

A Work breakdown structure is commonly known as WBS. Having an exhaustive project solution allows every investor to acquire a combined appreciativeness of the project. Each team is fully aware of what requirements to be established exactly. It is a distribution directed classified breakdown of effort. It is also frequently used to describe the entire range for the project in addition to finding required possible outcome for the project (Wysocki & Robert, 2011). 

Project Leadership 

It is just well-defined as the performance of the most important member in a team who directs the project successfully toward accomplishment. On the other hand obviously, it is much more than that. It is about attainment of something finished well through others. For attain in addition to bring out the most important purpose of the project leadership, to accomplish as well as to justify the project goals the subsequent tasks must be finalized, (project structuring, control of the time in addition to resource, management of the resources then processes, early identification of risks, avoidance of risks in the project, completion of the customer satisfaction and project results). Furthermore, its capability is to control a project (Anantatmula & V.S, 2010). 



PLC or PCM Efficiency 

Project life cycle (PLC) or Project cycle management (PCM) is the process in which designing, establishing, organizing, as well as monitoring of a project lies competently along with efficiently all over its stages, from designing over implementation then conclusion and evaluation to achieve prescribed goals or justify the project investor through creating the accurate expected results at the exact time, price then eminence.

PLC helps Cadbury in establishing its projects. Through implementing its stages (beginning or launch, preparation or planning, implementation, along with conclusion) Cadbury runs successfully as well as the stages are also helpful and beneficial for a manager and team members by the means of understanding its necessities (Prasad & Lampe, 2016).


Usage of PLC in different methodologies 

Through investigating all above PLC criteria it is stated that each of the projects is different in size, nature, techniques, and methodologies for every project. So, there are major differences between the small departmental projects and large projects. 

Agile used for large scale projects 

As per stated that Agile is used for large scale projects because it uses a repetitive, and additional method. It breaks down project into several pieces which need to be completed as well as planned, designed and delivered. 

Waterfall used for small projects 

As you know that waterfall is easy to follow or manage it has also less risk factor and especially works for small projects. This one is a consecutive project management methodology in which every single stage of the entire project (opportunity, preparation, planning, structure, challenging, manufactures well as preservation) become accomplished earlier it is moving toward the next, it is just like a waterfall (Marcelino & Sádaba, 2014). 


Evaluation of PLC 

(PLC) the Project Life Cycle directs towards the four basic stages which are followed through approximately every project manager when they want to move project successfully toward completion through stages. This is a well-known project life cycle. (PLC) the Project Life Cycle is responsible for providing a framework for managing any type of project through a business. To examine the best process by which the project runs successfully leaders in project management have directed research. Now maybe few organization known but it increases its


popularity, the Professional Services Life Cycle survives just for the reason that usual project life cycle does not suitable for every person’s requirements (Li & Zhu, 2012).  


The percent portfolio is describing a clear case study of “Cadbury”. It also stated PLC, its stages by the implantation in Cadbury’s projects. The project management life cycle, management tools, different methodologies represent the structure of organization.


Ajibola & Njogo, 2013. The Effect of Consumer Behaviour and Attitudinal Tendencies Towards Purchase Decision: A Case Study Of Unilever Nigeria Plc, Cadbury Nigeria Plc, United African Companies Plc. Oman Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 34, pp.1-31. 

Anantatmula & V.S, 2010. Project manager leadership role in improving project performance. 

Engineering Management Journal, 1(22). 

Burke & R, 2013. Project management: planning and control techniques. 26th ed. New Jersey, USA: 

planning and control techniques. 

Ecological & Indicators, 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons. 

Fernández & Sánchez, 2010. A methodology to identify sustainability indicators in construction project management—Application to infrastructure projects in Spain. Ecological Indicators, 

Li & Zhu, 2012. The energy-saving benefit evaluation methods of the grid construction project based on life cycle cost theory. Energy Procedia. 

Marcelino & Sádaba, 2014. Project risk management methodology for small firms. International journal of project management. 

Prasad & Lampe, 2016. Enhancing transmission efficiency of broadband PLC systems with in-band full duplexing. International Symposium on Power Line Communications and its Applications, pp.46-51. 

Stark & J, 2015. Product lifecycle management. In Product lifecycle management, 1, pp.1-29. 

Wysocki & Robert, 2011. Effective project management: traditional, agile, extreme. John Wiley & Sons.


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