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Research Proposal

 Introduction/ background to the research area 

Title: Implementation of IoT to increase employee engagement and restrict redundancy of Marks &Spencers, UK 

Research Questions:

  1. What is the benefit of IoT in Marks &Spencers?
  2. How will IoT help to increase the productivity of Marks &Spencers?
  3. How will IoT reduce the redundancy of Marks &Spencers?
  4. What will be the impact of Internet of Things on the privacy of the employees? 


It is important to notice that the Internet of Things (IoT) is increasing rapidly and has penetrated in each and every market and industries of UK. Traditional offices of UK are converting themselves to the Smart Offices by the implementation of the IoT. The IoT has a great impact in changing the workplace of Marks and Spencers, UK. IoT can increase the productivity and efficiency in M&S. IoT helps in saving energy even making the workplace comfortable for working. IoT helps in collaborating internal business process for the better workplace in Marks &Spencers, UK. IoT helps in monitoring the activities, data and the actions performed by the employees from anywhere as IoT is totally cloud-based. IoT Smart Office is highly networked and totally under surveillance which helps the employees to manage their work and things in an effective and efficient way. thus, the redundancy is reduced as everything is under tight protection and surveillance which is actually helpful for both the employees and employers which also helps in maintaining the organisationalbehaviour in the workplace of Marks &Spencers, UK. 

Literature review 

According to Dr.Dervojeda (2017), Internet of Things (IoT) is increasing rapidly and has penetrated in each and every market and industries of UK. Traditional offices of UK are converting themselves to the Smart Offices by the implementation of the IoT. The article focuses on the issues and challenges which are focusing the impact of IoT on the employees and the organizations of Europe. The article also focuses on the implementation of IoT which is cross-cutting the business model of the traditional business process management. According to the author, it was clearly projected that the demand of Internet of things (IoT) is huge and has a better prospect as it is supported by the public in larger number having lots of interest in them. But the problem arose due to the importance of automatic job process for skilled jobs overcoming the low skilled jobs done the employee. The skill of the employees has to be improved with the updated technology and technical skills. This implementation of IoT has also changed the future and the present educational strategy of the children. IoT is closely linked with the developments of the society, economy, political and technological. The mentioned impacts are beneficial in increasing the urbanization, supplying new energies, changing the climate, sharing the status of the economy, Artificial Intelligence (AI), geographic and political volatility and the aging of the societies. According to the author, it was projected that the world will be facing a loss of jobs of about 7.8 million in nearly 17 to 18 economic areas by the end of the 2020 and this era is said as the Fourth Industrial Revolution as projected by the World Economic Forum.

Burns (2017), claimed that the Internet of Things (IoT) is a technology which has the ability to transform the technology and has the ability to alter the strategic process and planning and even the future of the business. As per the author, by the end of 2020 more than 50 billion of the IoT devices will be connected to the IoT technology and the whole world will be IoTcloud-based and highly automatic with Artificial technology (AI) and the hybrid technology which is the collaboration of the cloud technology and fog domain. Moreover, almost all the industries are using IoT technology which also includes the logistics, manufacturing and marketing strategy tracking system. The implementation of is not only done in the large scale industries but also to the small-scale industries even which is helping the growth of the industry in all aspect by keeping a track on al, the key factors of the business industry which can be small or large. This, in turn, helps in increasing the productivity and efficiency of the industry.

As per Steve Ranger (2018), the implementation of Internet of Things (IoT) in the office has the ability to change the working procedure more effective and makes the employee work more efficiently. By the implementation of the IoT technology in office areas and building, the infrastructure of the office becomes more efficient and comes up many challenges. The employees of the office do not like to be monitored every time by the IoT devices in the office in various forms and types. The managers are happy with the implementation of this IoT devices as their work gets easier and can monitor each and every employee and their actions. Managers and other officials also look at the process of the generation of data by the help of IoT in the office making the traditional office a Smart Office. According to the author, it is mentioned that the Smart Office has been made smarter by the implementation of wearable devices such as Smart Watches. These smart watches can be used to open the door of the office, switch on or off the lights, fans, ACs, Computers and even lockers. Moreover, Smart Watches can be used to login to the desktop or laptop with the help of Cloud services on which the total IoT is dependent upon. Smartwatches also helps in handling other various sensors, can see the captured videos of the CCTV camera and etc. the most important benefit of IoT Smart Office is that it alerts the managers if any of the employees are ill and even gives an alert if any of the employee's heart beating rate has increased due to the work pressure or any other stress. Along with all the advantages and benefits and issues of IoT based Smart Office, the most and unavoidable issue or the threats are the attacker of the hacker termed as the cyber-attack which several ill effects on the business of the organization which can even be the major reason for the downfall of the leading business in the market. Thus the issues regarding the cyber-attack which is common for Cloud-basedIoT Smart Office should be resolved as soon as possible and the remedies should be implemented for the benefit of the business, organization and even the public who are using the products and services of the organization in a broader aspect. 


Research Philosophy:

Research philosophy is a part of research methodology which is used to decide the appropriate approach for the researchers for their research with proper reasons which is mostly based on the assumptions.(Padilla-Díaz, 2015) The proposed assumptions are about the researchers’ views with respect to the world which are meant to determine the strategy of the research along with their methods and process. To continue with the objectives of the research, the research paper is based on the interview taken in Marks &Spencers, UK. The interview was taken of the employees and managers of Marks &Spencers, UK. The interview of the employees and the managers were taken separately to avoid chaos and to get an exact result and even therewere no external or internal threats exerted on the employees and even on the managers, both the interviewee were independent to present the interview. 

Data Collection Methods and Tools:

Data refers to the information which is either quantitative or qualitative in nature used for transmission or for storing or even for the statistical comparisons. There are two types of quantitative and qualitative data collection which are primary and secondary data. The primary data refers to the interview taken and the secondary data refers to the literature review.(Bryman, 2016) Normally, according to the research methodology, the interview will be taken in this research as the personal interaction between the employees and the managers of Marks &Spencers. This interview has been taken and the survey was done on the basis of a one-to-one survey of interactions with a group of 3 employees and 3 line managers of Marks &Spencers, UK. The interviews of the employees and the line managers were taken separately to avoid chaos and to get an exact result and even there was no external or internal threats exerted on the employees and even on the managers. In the interview, the interviewees were questioned which are related to their experiences and realities in the office workplace of Marks &Spencers. The interview will be conducted to extract the details of the other colleagues and their attitudes and their point of disappointment. As per Punch (2013), the research through interview gives a separated quantitative and qualitative data. In this research, qualitative data will be taken and used for getting the qualitative result from research through the interview which will be about the historical details about Marks &Spencers and their employees and even their line managers.(Neuman & Robson, 2017)Moreover, it will reflect the emotions, perceptions,and attitudes of the survival employee of the redundancy programme. This is a very easy and small semi-structured interview which is beneficial in the statistical form by the data and information collected from the employees and the line managers of Marks &Spencers, UK. The mentioned information and data refers to the outcomes of the questions to the interviewees which is pre-arranged but there will be flexibility to answer the questions in their own possible way which in turn will help in understanding the emotions, perceptions,and attitudes of the employees and the line managers. The main focuses of the interview are to identify the dissatisfaction caused among the employees due to the implementation of the IoT in office workplace making the traditional office a Smart Office with the continuous track on the employees and their working procedure and activities.This research will help in reducing the dissatisfaction of the employees with the implementation of IoT in the workplace of Marks &Spencers. 


Sampling is referred to as a principle used for the analysis of the statistical data having numerous observations which are predetermined and that are taken from huge population. (Altmann, 2015)The sampling methodology can be categorised into two types: Probability and Nonprobability Sampling. In the proposed research, convenience sampling methodology is the part of Nonprobability Sampling has been implemented which very simple and easy.(Kothari, 2014) The convenience sampling method is used to have the participants conveniently with less requirements which has its importance in studying the research. Though the convenience sampling method has various advantages, it is necessary to keep a focus on the errors in sampling process.(Etikan, et al., 2016) According to the current research report, the sampling will be done with the help of two elements such as the employees and the line managers. The managers of the M&S will be selected due to the fact that they have quite a good knowledge and experience for the implementation of the programme of redundancy. The employees will be selected due to the fact that they have come across the redundancy programme which were managed by the line managers of the M&S. As per the proposed research, six interviews will be taken and all the interviews will be recorded. Each interview will take one hour to finish so the total interviewing process will take six hours to finish approximately. 

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According to the research, there have no standard approaches been used for the analysis of the data which are totally qualitative. For the data’s qualitative nature, content analysis has been used in the research as it is the summarization of the main points of the whole thing and also have the main theme of the work. In the proposed research, the data collected can be kept under statistical analysis to get the priority of the data over other data to get a modal value of the data. 


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