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Recruitment and Selection process



1.1 Introduction:

As opined by Arvey and Campion (2010, p290), “In order to increase the efficiency and retention of the employees, it is essential to implement an appropriate Recruitment and Selection process”. Recruitment is the procedure that the organization applies to identify the human resource requirements of the organisation and attract suitable candidates. Selection refers to the process that is involved in choosing a predefined number of candidates from a number of applicants to fill the available posts in the organization (Barber, 2009).

1.2 Background on the topic:

Employees are considered to be the face of the organisation. According to Compton and Nankervis (2011), effective recruitment and selection procedure gives the organization a unique identity in terms of competent human resource and performance. Strategic human resource management involved hiring potential individuals whose skills and competencies match with the organisational goals and objectives. The selection of the right person for the right job, at the right time and place is essential to drive organisational performance. Hiring the wrong candidates can lead to increased costs in terms of training, low employee productivity and high labour turnover. The study deals with investigating the recruitment and selection procedure followed by Marks & Spencer, U.K..

Marks & Spencer recruit internally by advertising on the notice board either in paper format or through employee account online like, organizational intranet, in his journals, references or recommendations and word of mouth. The external recruitment procedure is followed by contacting  hiring agencies for graduates, employment agencies for contemporary workers and accepting online application  in the company’s own web site.

1.3 Rationale of the study:

Organisations in the current competitive business scenario face a scarcity of talented employees whose competencies match with the organisational goals. Poor hiring and selection policies lead to low employee productivity, loss of employee morale, increasing costs and higher turnover intention (Giovanni et al. 2008). Unsuitable employees unnecessarily increase training costs, demotivate Co workers, and thereby build weak organisational culture. Davidson (2010) has stated that an effective recruitment and selection process has an objective to structure a strong manpower and efficient human resource to enhance the productivity of the firm. The traditional process like newspaper adverts are now less effective as online networking is a great resource to reach to each person for this process. A wrong way of selection process can cause the degradation of human resource that can hamper the productivity of the firm (Dessler and Williams, 2009).

The relevance of this study can be justified as it seeks  to uncover the loopholes (if exists) in the current recruitment and selection process of Marks & Spencer. Identifying such loopholes will prevent the company from hiring unsuitable candidates, thereby reducing costs and developing effective talent management. 

1.4 Aims and Objectives:

The following aims and objectives can help the researcher to go through a proper way to meet the objectives.

1.4.1 Aims

The aim of this research is to investigate the recruitment and selection procedure followed by Marks & Spencer to meet its workforce requirements. The researcher also aims to critically analyse the pros and cons of its current hiring process and recommend better strategies if loopholes exist.  

1.4.2 Objectives

The objectives of the research can be explained as follows:

1.   To understand the importance of recruitment and selection process for organizational development

2.   To critically evaluate the effectiveness of current recruitment and selection strategies followed by Marks & Spencer.

3.   To identify recruitment gaps and recommend better strategies for future talent management

1.5 Research Questions:


Q1) what is the need and importance of having an effective recruitment and selection policy for modern organizations?

Q2) Is the current recruitment and selection procedure followed by Marks & Spencer appropriate enough to meet organisational goals?

Q3) Does the company follow a cost effective approach to talent management, such as E-recruitment from social media ?

Q4) What are the problems that the company’s H.R. dept face in terms of hiring competent employees ? What can be the possible solution to such recruitment issues ? 

2.1 Literature Review:

The literature review is an effective assessment of the applied theoretical evidences and techniques to carry out the present research in a logical fashion (Kleiman, 2007). The researcher will try to understand the different conceptual and theoretical framework on the basis of recruitment and selection procedures. This study will critically discuss all the literature about the topic to have a clear visibility about the recruitment and selection procedure and is impacting on the organizational performance. Negative and positive approaches will be declared to make a better understanding.

2.2 Recruitment and Selection:

According to Kunerth and Mosley (2011), identifying the need for recruitment, both in terms of quality and quantity, is the core function of human resource department. Attracting the right candidates through proper sources as and when vacancies arise is the rationale being recruited. Selection refers to choosing potential candidates whose performance help to achieve organisational goals (Nankervis, 2010). The entire process involves advertisements for relevant posts, receiving applications, sorting and shortlisting applications, interviewing and testing candidates to fulfil the workforce requirements. Parry and Wilson (2009) define selection as ‘the process by which managers use specific instruments to choose suitable candidate from a pool of applicants most likely to succeed in the job(s), organizational goals and legal requirements’. 

The human resource department has to comply with relevant laws relating to social discrimination, equal opportunity etc. in order to conduct ethical recruitment and selection. According to Sharma (2009), in this globalised and increasingly sophisticated market, recruitment and selection process has become an essential tool for every organization to achieve the goal with the continuation of innovation and growth in the future.

2.3 Sourcing Best Candidates:

The best candidates are selected by evaluating the capabilities of the candidates having the following important traits:

1.   Meet specification

2.   Well prepared for the interview

3.   Positive and Enthusiastic

4.   Creativity

5.   Self-confidence

6.   Full utilization of chance

7.   Not a job hopper

2.4 Recruitment and Selection procedure:

2.4.1 Identification of Vacancy:

This refers to the identification of the vacancies in the organization and determines the requirements of new human resources for those posts (White and Willard, 2009). Various departments of the organization first identify the vacancies by classifying the positions. The company had consolidated the total vacancies and then the detailed job analysis are conducted to define the selection criteria.

2.4.2 Job Analysis and Description:

All the data of the vacant posts are gathered together and analysed to identify the tasks of the job specified (Huo et al. 2008). The job description states about which activities are performed and what skills are needed to enhance the performance quality.

2.4.3 Personnel Specification:

Personnel specification is the attribute that describes the requirements that the job holders need to have been capable to perform the specified job satisfactorily (Breaugh and Stark, 2006). The most common procedure of personnel specification is competencies. Some of the important competencies are:

1.   Physical attributes: physical attributes are important and to be analysed to specify the right person for the suitable job thus helping in attracting and satisfying clients.  

2.   Attainments: This is a personal attribute that assess their personal creativity and experience about the market and other task of the specified job.

3.   Interests: The personal interest helps the individuals to choose the field they want to wear in.

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