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 MENTAL HEALTH AWARENESS

Definition of Schizophrenia 
A chronic mental disorder that involves a breakdown between the relation of emotion and behavior.
As stated by Das-Munshi et. al. (2018), inappropriate feelings and actions, imagining personal relationships to fantasy that leads to faulty perceptions.
This brain disorder affect a person’s thinking ability and ability to behave properly and feel.
Speaker notes: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that affects person’s thinking ability. It breaks down the relation between the reality and fantasy.  The ability of understanding of doing appropriate behaviour and proper feelings are affected.  This is a chronic disorder and it may be life-long.  It is a type of mental illness that many people may have and this disease affected people are generally not harmful. 
 
Reasons of Schizophrenia 
The schizophrenia occurs due to a particular combination of genes that may result in the vulnerability of causing Schizophrenia.
According to a research, the people who have schizophrenia have little changes in the structure of their brains and in the level of neurotransmitters (García et. al. 2016).
Any kind of stresses such as losing a job, getting divorced, physical or mental abuse can increase the risk of Schizophrenia in a person.
According to Correll et. al. (2018), research has also found that Schizophrenia is more likely to happen in the people who may have experienced any kind of complications during birth.
Speaker notes: The exact reasons of occurrence of Schizophrenia are unknown. A combination of environmental, psychological, physical and genetic factors may be responsible for its occurrence. These factors may trigger the chances of having Schizophrenia that it can make a person more vulnerable towards the disease. In case of genetic factors, different types of combinations of genes may raise the chance of Schizophrenia but it doesn’t mean that one would definitely have schizophrenia. Schizophrenia may occur in people who don’t have any kind of mental problem.  Neurotransmitters are a type of chemical that transmits messages within the brain cells. Therefore, any change in the level of neurotransmitter can result in the occurrence of the disease. People with Schizophrenia are likely to have faced any kind of birth complications like premature birth, lack of oxygen during the birth or maybe a lower weight. 
 
Symptoms of Schizophrenia 
People suffering from Schizophrenia can see, feel, hear or smell certain things that no one can and this phenomenon is called Hallucination (Galletly et. al. 2016). 
Most of the Schizophrenia suffering people thinks that the people over TVs or any devices try to control their brain. 
They also believe that they are some renowned person like the President or any popular actor and this kind of misconception or wrong thinking is called Delusions. 
Schizophrenia causes unorganized thoughts and unorganized speech that is, people get confused in the way of talking and cannot explain their thoughts. 
Speaker’s Note: There are a number of symptoms present that can clearly guide a person whether a person is having Schizophrenia or not. Hallucinations may lead a people to hear some kind of sounds from their head and may see people who are no longer alive. People suffering from Schizophrenia can also feel something moving on their body like an insect or may be a hand. They can also smell some good or bad smell and can refuse to eat due to the fear of having poison.  Delusions include the feel of something unnatural after one or one may feel like he is being stalked by someone like a repeated footstep after his own. 
 
Intervention Strategies 
Family intervention is a type of program that can be done to reduce the stress within the family to control the person affected by the disease. 
Cognitive behavioural therapy is a type of therapy given to the patient to motivate them to examine the reality occurrences and their imagination (Martino et.al. 2018).
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is a team that offers caring of a patient in their homes and offers services 24 hours. 
Speaker’s Notes:  Intervention is the steps that can be taken for improving the mental disorder. These include different types of program that can help a person to recover the disease as soon as possible. Family interventions are a type of therapy that is given to all the family members instructing them of the way to behave with the person who has been affected by the disease. Cognitive behavioural therapy helps in improving the attentions, abstraction levels and capability of using brain of the patients. ACT gives a 24 hour emergency coverage to the patients in their homes and this team performs by doing the necessary treatment and medication the patient however and whenever required. The activities that helps in reducing stress also needs to be done with the suffered people so that people gets cured as fast as possible. 
 
Antipsychotic Medication for medication adherence plan 
Positive attitude should be there to get the positive results of the medication.
A patient who has been prescribed a second generation antipsychotic medication may have result in weight gain and few extra pyramidal side-effects.
According to Bjornestad et. al. (2019), nonadherence towards treatment and medication involves the refusal to treatments and this need to be changed into adherence. 
Speaker’s note: Antipsychotic medication plays a crucial role in the treatment of Schizophrenia and controlling its symptoms. Effective management needs to be done and long-term treatment is to be given in order to cure the disease. Proper conception about the nature of illness and proper treatment or medication is the most important factors that can influence adherence. A patient whenever is prescribed with second generation antipsychotic medicines need to also be careful about the doses as there is also  few side effects of the medication like weight gain. As schizophrenia affected people may have a tendency of delusions and hallucinations so, nonadherence towards treatment and medication can be possible.  The nonadherence to treatment may include refusal to have medicines and proper treatment but that needs to be changed into adherence in order to get over the disease and get correct results of the medication.  Positive attitude needs to be there for getting the positive results of the medicines and the treatment as well.
 
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