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Management Of Fundamentals Assignment Help

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Management Of Fundamentals Assignment Help

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 Introduction 

Management of the ethical dilemmas enhances the ethical morality of a business environment. This course study demonstrates the ethical decision of a pharmaceutical organization of Australia, CSL Behring, which have developed vaccines, in order to treat a virus. The virus is already tested on the chimpanzees, and thus wants to take decision on human trail. This study highlights the concept of ethical decision making with relevant theories and models. This discourse demonstrates the management roles and functions, which focuses on the fundamentals of organization management. 
The thesis of the discourse sheds light on the management decision-making process of the organization, with considering the ethical dilemmas.
 
Body
Concept of Ethical management 
Ethics are considered as the moral standards, by an organization, which are considered in the organizational process, policies and procedures of the organization. In terms of ethics, the managers of the organizations, such as CSL, have to take decision based on the moral implications, which might influence their organizational decisions, and related stakeholders. Ethical management of an organization plays an important role in enhancing the organizational performance and process, in a positive manner. 
In case of CSL, the ethical decision management of the organization is the manager decision, in terms of vaccine use on humans, which needs to be properly accumulated with the social standards. As Dane and Sonenshein (2015, p.82), has commented that, the ethical decisions of an organization, needs to be properly analyzed by the managers and concerned authorities of the organization, in order to identify the potential risks. 
Ethical management practices, with reference to the maintenance of the social standards, can help the organization to place proper ethical decision, in relation to social well-being. The managers of the CSL Behring, needs to identify the possible and potential risks of the vaccine use on the human, which can help them to strategize a planning, based on the estimated outcomes. 
In addition to that, the ethical decision making management in relation to the vaccine use on humans, by CSL can help them to gain positive reputation, as concerning the influence of decision on stakeholders, helps the organization to gain positive response. 
The ethical decision making process in terms of emergency situations, as shown in the case study, needs to be placed properly. However, Hamer and Collinson (2014, p.28), has argued that, the ethical decisions of an organization cannot rely on the possible outcome estimation, in an emergency situation. Regardless, proper ethical decision making in CSL Behring, can help the organization to feature positive and strong relationship with their stakeholders and service users. 
 
Principles of Decision-Making
While taking the decision on sharing of the experimental vaccines to the West African health workers, CSL needs to maintain the principles of ethical-decision making. As the virus is spreading rapidly in the West Africa, thus, the need of treating the individuals is immediate and necessary. In the view of Gopee and Galloway (2017, p.53), maintenance of the decision-making principles, in the organizational decision can help to place proper and concrete decision in a positive manner. 
In general, there are five principles of the decision-making. The principles are following:
 
Beneficence
The principle of beneficence in the decision-making, needs to be done, based on the well-being of the patients and service users. From the given case study, it has been seen that, the widespread of vaccine has already spread rapidly to the West Africa. Thus, in order to stop the virus from spreading in the other areas, the CSL needs to take decision, based on the patient and individuals needs. In the opinion of Ocak, Köseoglu and Yildiz (2017, p.6), the principle of beneficence of the decision-making with considering the ethics, ensures the obligation of benefitting the concerned patients, staffs and other service users well-being.
 
Non-maleficence
The principle of non-maleficence ensures that the patients, stakeholders or any other individuals related, directly or indirectly, are not harmed through the decision of the organization. Considering the principle of non-maleficence, in terms of decision making of CSL, denying of request by the health worker of West Africa can harm the health status of the individuals, suffering from the virus. However, on the other hand, as the vaccine are tested on the chimpanzees but not on the human, thus the result of human trial might show either positive effects or negative effects, which cannot be estimated properly. 
 
Respect for autonomy and individuals
In terms of the third principle of the respect for the individuals and their autonomy considers the decision of the patients, in terms of their treatment. However, as Buchbinder and Shanks (2016, p.83), has commented that, in the principle of autonomy and respect, several; conflicts, among the decision maker and the patients or service users might arise. As the treatment desired by the patients, might not be warranted by the service provider, thus, forming the situation of conflicts. In case of the CSL, as the vaccines are not tested on humans, however, the health workers are requesting for the vaccines, in order to treat the patients suffering from the virus, thus, the conflicts might be formed, as the human trial results are not guaranteed by the CSL. 
 
Justice
The principle of justice, in the ethical decision-making process demonstrates the equal distribution of the benefits and potential risks, in relation to the service users. In case of any emergency situations, the service providers of the organizations, needs to maintain the equal and fair treatment, for the patients (Crossan, Mazutis and Seijts, 2013, p.573). In case of the CSL, the principle of justice ensures to the approval of request for the vaccine, as it will be the fair treatment for the individuals suffering from the virus. 
 
Utility
The principle of utility, in the decision-making process, ensures the responsibility of the organization to save the life of the individuals. In terms of the CSL decision making of the vaccines, the organization can deliver the vaccines to the health workers of the West Africa, with considering the principle of utility, as a responsibility to save the life of individuals. As Anderson et al. (2015, p.63), has opined that, improper principle of the utility can negatively influence the functioning of the organization. 
 
Theories of Decision-making 
As the decisions in the management process plays a vital role in influencing the organizational; behaviour and processes, thus, the ethical decisions of the organizations can follow different theories and models of decision-making process. In the viewpoint of Cox (2015, p.38), application of different decision making process theories and models in the organizational decision can help them to place concrete and positive decision, with reference to consideration of the social standards. Different theories and models of decision-making process, which can be applied by the organizations, are following:
 
8 step decision-making process 
The 8 step decision making process of an organization can help the organization to identify and analyze the barriers in the decision making process in a concrete manner, thus help them to decide a positive decision. In terms of the decision making process of CSL, on the vaccine approval, the 8 steps process can be approached by the CSL. The eight step process of decision -making posses the following steps:
 
Problem Identification 
The concerned issue or problem needs to be identified properly. In the opinion of Pullen and Rhodes (2015, p.41), the identification of the problem can help the organization to analyze it precisely. In case of CSL, the issue of virus needs to be properly analyzed precisely, in order to place a possible alternatives and solutions. 
 
Public engagement 
The individuals need to be informed about the issue. In case of the virus, the individuals and concerned authority needs to be informed about the rapid spread of the virus. Information of the issue to the public can help the CSL to gain certain reviews and alternatives on the problem. 
 
Analyzation of issue
With the public engagement and identification of the issue, proper evaluation of the virus needs to be done by the CSL. As Lewis et al. (2016, p.35), has opined that, the evaluation of the problem can help to drench the positive and negative influences, in social relation. The evaluation of virus can help the CSL to identify the effects of virus and thus to take decision, based on the identified effects.
 
Alternatives Analyzation 
The evaluation of the problem thus, can help the organization to choose several strategies. The CSL needs to analyze the chosen alternatives, in order to gain the best possible results. In the opinion of Hunink et al. (2014, p.73), analysing the chosen alternatives for decision processing needs to be evaluated in terms of their negative and positive influences on the organization and the service users.
 
Selection of Alternative 
With proper analyzation and evaluation of the alternative solutions, the CSL needs to choose one of the alternatives, which can have fewer negative effects and thus enhance the life of the virus infected people. 
 
Execution of alternative 
The chosen alternative needs to executed, in order to measure the effectiveness of the decision on the individuals. The decision of the CVL thus, needs to be execute, either approval of the request or deny of the request. Regardless, the CSL needs to execute the decision, based on the well being of the virus infected individuals. 
 
Communication 
In the opinion of Zsambok (2014, p,16), the decision of the organization, needs to be communicated properly, in order to make the individuals understand about the changes or the decision, that have been taken. 
 
Feedback 
Feedback, in terms of organizational decision plays an important role in measuring the effectiveness of the decision, where the organization can implement the changes in their decision if required. In case of CSL, if the vaccine request will be approval, the organization can measure the effectiveness of the vaccine on the humans. On the other hand, the denial decision of CSL can also measure the opinions of the individuals. 
 
Discuss the roles and functions of management
In the viewpoint of Rothman (2017, p.69), the managerial decision of the organization needs to concisely demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness and possible influence of the organizational decision.  The major roles and functions of the managerial system of the organization is to planning, organizing, coordinating with the other individuals, monitoring of the resources and other crucial decisions of the organization. The management function of the CSL thus needs to plan for the approval request of the vaccines, by the health workers of the West Africa. However, as the vaccines are not tested on the humans, thus, it needs to be properly analysed, with the negative and positive possible outcomes of the vaccines. 
With considering the principles of the ethical decision making process of the vaccine request, by the health workers, the CSL can approve the request, as  the vaccines, are already tested on the chimpanzees, which have already sho0wn positive results. In the view of Jauregui et al. (2015, p.31), the chimpanzees are considered as the previous ancestors of human species, thus, the chances of gaining positive results on the humans are high. Moreover, the approval decision of the CSL needs to be based on the eight step decision making process, with consideration of the principles of ethical decision management process. 
As the vaccines have shown, positive results on Chimpanzees, thus, it can help the individuals to gain positive results and thus, to stop the spread of virus, in other areas. However, the legislative consideration needs to be maintained, along with the approval of decision. 
 
Conclusion 
From the above study, it can be concluded that, the decision-making process in an organization can influence the functionality of the organization. Poor decision-making by an organization can have negative effects and influence on their stakeholders and other service users. In terms of making a crucial decision, the influence on the service users needs to be accumulated. Moreover, the decisions of the organization can be taken, based on the principles of ethical decision, which can consider the social and ethical standards. As the managerial decision can influence the organizational process and policies thus, the decision-making process models can be approached by the organizations, in order to gain concrete and positive decision.  
 
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