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How do leadership style different from culture to culture?

 

Article 1

 
Cultural tightness–looseness and perceptions of effective leadership. 
The main aim of this article is to analyze the strength of norms of society, its cultural tightness-looseness and examine the relationship between cultural values and leadership. Data from leadership research show how leadership attribute to the effectiveness in tight and loose culture. This research describes that tightness and looseness have definite involvement for the leadership style that is comprehended to be effective over cultures. They first discussed some early research on cultural tightness-looseness and then put some new theories and hypotheses to imply theories of autonomous, self-protected and human leadership. 
Data regarding this topic were collected by joining results from Gelfand et al and data from GLOBE’S individual, organisational and societal level, these results assess preferences of leadership, the culture of organisations and culture of society. 6823 respondent from33 different countries were considered and 58.6% of them were female respondents. Minimum age of them was 30.1 years and their average number of work experience was 8 years. GLOBE's data were collected from 15247 managers of middle level employed in 759 organisations of 62 societies from financial, food processing and industries of telecommunication. Respondents from per country were from 27 to 1790 an average of 250 per nation. It shows that countries like Australia, Austria, Brazil, China all have cultural tightness towards leadership. Different hypotheses were done.
At first, it is depicted that cultural tightness would affect negatively to aided leadership but these tests were not significant, so this hypothesis was not supportive. The second thesis showed that tightness of culture would relate positively to sovereign leadership. It predicts that people from the societies of tight cultural values stated that leaders who do not want to collaborate with their colleagues are more confident. The third thesis showed that there is a different adverse relationship between tight culture and leadership that is appealing after they control organisational and social practices. As we can see this research has its strengths and flaws, it introduces a number of directions newly and real implications for tight and loose leadership.
 
Article 2
 
Cross-Cultural leadership: Expectations on gendered leaders’ behavior.  
The main aim of this research is to test gendered expectations toward the behaviour of a leader in cross-cultural leadership theory. The main focus is about the propositions about the gendered expectation's effect on a leader. There are different approaches towards leaders of the two genders in every culture. In this article, the main topic of discussion is about how does the behaviour of the leader and the gender equality in leadership result in the development of a fi it culture in an organisation and the nation as a whole.
A conceptual model is provided here and it mainly discussed the potential of disagreement between a male leader and a female leader as a male leader is considered to e more dominant. Today we often do not see a woman as successful as a man although they adopt a dominant leadership style. This article is discussing this aspect of cross-cultural leadership theory by targeting gender behaviour which is expected. In the 21st-century concept of leadership has changed, stereotyping gender is an extremely touching research field in management nowadays. Style and behaviour is the main theory in leadership and widely addressed in the research of cross-culture.in this article the main purpose is to combine the studies that are based on the gender equality and the theory of cross-culture. At first, there is a review on cross-cultural leadership and gender and after that, there is an intention to make a fusion of the research of past and draft a model on leadership, gender and culture nationally. We find that for many years there is a conception that shows that a "leader" and a "man" become very similar in terms while "women" and "leader" is developing for past 100 years. Cases of acting gender and the aspects of masculinism-feminism is studied. In every culture, there are some valid expectations of male and female leaders. This research provides an explanation of why women are not so successful when they act a masculine leadership style.
 
Article 3
 
Public relations leadership development cycle: 
The article is aimed at highlighting the aspects and the stages relating to the development of the forms of leadership and the relations among the public. Interviewing students and practitioners from five countries a study has been done. This study gathered some important data regarding seven dimensions of public relations leadership.  This study is executed to know when these dimensions are learned and how they are displayed. Students from Brazil, China, India, Russia and the U.S were considered via phone or in person as students of these countries represented in the global study. Researchers mailed a list which consists of a list of public relations leadership dimensions, to allow the interviewee’s time to review the concepts. 
They started interviews with researchers and provided the respondents with the definition of leadership development. They asked the respondents to give a thought about the leadership activities and development all of their lives and how they helped them become the leader in the field. A total of 51 respondents were interviewed, among them, 25 practitioners were aged between the early '20s to early '30s and 14 of them were females. Other 26 students were graduates and undergraduates, 10 of them were males and rest females. They were told to give a review of the summaries to assure that they reflect in their views and comments. In this research, we find that many of the practitioners stated that they started to be a leader from an early age as family essentiality.  
Most of the students stated that they started to learn leadership skills from their early childhood except students from Brazil. Students from China stated that they began to learn by the activities in their schools. According to the interviews if communication and public speaking skill improve from an early age would revolve them more.
 
Article 4
 
From cross-cultural management to global leadership: 
The main aim of this article is to show the evaluation and adaption from cross-cultural management to global leadership. Here this article presents a review that how the course of global leadership is evolving. A conceptual map of the overall curve of the global leadership and it discussed its origin in the context of cross-cultural management initiating from 1960. The parameters of global leadership have been reviewed and after that, they conducted a formulation of frameworks and the paradigms of future contexts of research.
The article began the initial research about cross-cultural management focusing on global leadership. Due to the potential forms of development in the field, the research in this context has been abnormally high. But many of the studies have lacked the approach to know differences between because there might be some differences in thinking of different cultures. We find in this article that the field of cross-cultural management mainly targeted the study of the behaviour of the organisation and management system. They find that cultural research and comparative research at this period respected the differences of culture. This article has reviewed the eventual division of the global leadership into four different stages and the eventual aims and strategies of each of these stages. This article discussed how different research streams unite to provide birth to global leadership. Lastly, the different literary evidences have been studied and the scopes and the discussions for the future research scopes in this topic have also been stated.
 
Article 5
 
Do similarities or differences between CEO leadership and organizational culture have a more positive effect on firm performance?
This article mainly focuses on reviewing the similarities and differences between CEO leadership and Organisational culture and if it has a positive effect on the performances of Firms. This article is a test of competing predictions about fit or interaction between culture and leadership.  
Data used in this article are taken from the CEO and members of their TMT. They participated at different points at the time of the data collection. 205 CEO"S was granted access in the software and hardware industries. Among them 120 CEO's agreed to be a participant, that is a 58.5% rate.  CEO's who participated had identified their TMT members and gave their information. The average age of the CEO"s was 48.7 years and their average tenure was 4.2 years. 73% CEO's are serving the company as chief executive for the last three years. The average size of TMT was 3.2 members and the average number of TMT responses per organisation was 2.8. They collected data from various sources. TMT members gave rates to the leadership, the behaviour of the CEO's and they assessed the culture of the organisation.
About 27% CEO’s failed to give correct information and descriptive data regarding control variables. We find that only the performance of the prior firm was an important predictor. We find that the interaction of task leadership and task culture was important and negative. Some hypothesis predicts that relational leadership and culture of relationship are not similar. If the performance level of relational leadership and culture is higher, it would be similar.  It is shown that the performance of the firm was high when leadership and culture level were not similar.  
It is posited that CEO founders must have a stronger impression on the culture of an organisation. This study shows some important managerial implications. CEO's needs more awareness and change their style of leadership accordingly. Leadership behaviour of the CEO may not be effective in the future. Organisations will change according to the competitive landscape and it is important for the CEO's to have upward feedback to identify the leadership of the dominant style and have leadership training to change their behaviours. 
 

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