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Harvard Referencing Style

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Harvard Referencing Style


  An Abridged Guide to the  Harvard Referencing Style  Academic Learning Centre 


How to use this guide

This guide provides an introduction to the intricacies of referencing using the CQUniversity Harvard style of referencing.

Part 1

offers explanations of terms and concepts that are vital for the development of your knowledge so you can become proficient at referencing. Labelled and annotated examples are used to assist you. There are a number of variations on the Harvard style of referencing and it is important for you to use the style shown in this guide. Once you are familiar with some of the concepts and key words, you will find it much easier to use

Part 2

of this guide which contains further examples of in-text and reference-list references. Referencing requires attention to detail, so you will need to refer to these examples and explanations a number of times as you develop references for your assignments. There is much more information about these concepts available to students of CQUniversity in the form of on-campus workshops, online workshops, Info Sheets and videos. These can be found on the Academic Learning Centre (ALC) Moodle site. If you are enrolled in a degree at CQUniversity it is also possible to ask an ALC adviser for some assistance with referencing.

Part 1: Terms and concepts vital for using Harvard Why reference? I

n academic work, you are expected to research specific topics by reading about those topics using a range of different sources. Referencing is how you acknowledge the sources of information you have drawn on in your research. References must be provided whenever you use someone else’s opinions, theories or data. This enables you to

:a support your work with the authoritative work of other authors

b avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the original source of an idea or piece of information 

c demonstrate your knowledge of a topic and show that you have researched, read, thought about and come to a point of view on it. You need to reference information from books, articles, DVDs, the World Wide Web, other print or electronic sources and personal communications. A reference is required if you:

d use a direct quotation

e copy or reproduce (e.g. use figures, tables or structure)

 paraphrase (put another person’s ideas into your own words)

f summarise (give a brief account of another person’s ideas). The terms above and many others are explained in the following section.   

What is plagiarism? One of the benefits of becoming proficient at referencing is that it will assist you to avoid plagiarism. CQUniversity’s Academic Misconduct Procedure defines plagiarism as ‘the presentation of work, ideas or data of others as one’s own, without appropriate acknowledgement and referencing’ (CQUniversity 2014, p. 1). This includes using an author’s work, another student’s work, or your own previously submitted work without acknowledging or citing it, all of which are considered forms of plagiarism. CQUniversity has an Academic Misconduct Procedure. You will need to search for it here http://policy.cqu.edu.au/Policy/policy_list.do# Plagiarism is one of the behaviours discussed in this document as it is considered serious misconduct and must be avoided at all times.

Developing the following skills will help you to avoid unintentional plagiarism or poor referencing 

a note-taking techniques

b organising your sources

c summarising correctly and efficiently

d paraphrasing  using direct quotations appropriately

e acknowledging the resources upon which you have based your ideas by referencing in- text

f referencing your sources correctly in the reference list. For further help on avoiding plagiarism, see the Academic Learning Centre’s Academic Integrity and Plagiarism module, available on the ALC’s Moodle site 

Assistance with the skills listed above is provided by the Academic Learning Centre if you are enrolled in a degree at CQUniversity. How to reference The Harvard (Author/Date) system is composed of two elements: in-text citation and a reference list.

1 An in-text citation is the acknowledgement of an author’s words or ideas in the body of your assignmen.

2 The reference list is at the end of the document. It lists all of the sources referred to in your assignment in alphabetical order by author's surname. Information provided in this list includes: author, date, title, publisher and place of publication. Remember to organise your reference list alphabetically using the author’s surname, the organisation or company names. An example of a reference list and a checklist follows in the next section. 

 Long URLs To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to give the home page for a website rather than the exact URL of the page you are referencing as long as the website has a search facility. For example: Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2013, Australian social trends: pregnancy and work transitions, 2013, cat. no. 4102.0, viewed 18 November 2014, http://www.abs.gov.au/ The ‘Cite’ option in CQUniversity Library’s Library Search service If you find an item in Library Search you can use the ‘Cite’ button on the right-hand side of the screen to generate the citation for you. This time saving ‘cite’ button will display your item in a number of different referencing styles but be aware that the referencing style called

Harvard in Library Search is a USA version of Harvard, so it is NOT the same as the Australian version of Harvard used by CQUniversity. Be sure to use the referencing style shown in this Harvard guide to adapt the ‘Cite’ reference to suit CQUniversity’s style. Unpublished sources Always try to use published materials for your assignments. Unpublished materials usually comprise theses or papers presented at a conference. You must also ask the lecturer for permission if you want to use material from one of your previous assessment tasks. Sample reference list References

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

2014, Where do migrants come from?, cat. no. 4102.0, viewed 20 October 2014, http://www.abs.gov.au Department of]

Sustainability, Environment,

Water, Population and Communities 2012, Salinity, fact sheet, viewed 18 November 2014, ht-salinity-and-water-quality Gottliebsen, R 2004, ‘1964–2004 and beyond’, Australian 28 July, p. 12. ‘Multifacet menace’ 2007, Science, vol. 317, no. 5836, pp. 301–304. Robbins, SP, Millett, B, Cacioppe, R & Waters-Marsh, T 2001, Organisational behaviour, 3rd edn, Prentice Hall Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW. Stevens, LP & Bean, TW 2007, Critical literacy: context, research, and practice in the K-12 classroom, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks. Sutton-Spence, R & Kaneko, M 2007, ‘Symmetry in sign language poetry’, Sign Language Studies, 

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