Fundamentals Of Management Assignment Help

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Management and decision making revolves around a set of ethical and moral considerations. The position of decision making needs appropriate knowledge of the particular field, analytical, and critical thinking skills. There are basic regulations established over the years for the process of decision making which cannot be manipulated with vague ideologies. This requires to be followed sternly along with the improvisation of one's own thoughts based on sensible and practical grounds. The decision-making in medical ground can vary from decision making in any other field. The consequences, effects and occurrence of the decision have to be considered, listing the relative criteria of the purpose of decision.
The concept of the ethical norms of management and why they are followed
A decision making position is a difficult duty to perform. It involves the influence of a group of mass and can stand as the cause in different scenarios. In the opinion of Griffin (2013, p.112), there are certain ethics that are followed before making any important decision. In this scenario, the decision is being taken based on the values of life of a huge group of mass. Medical field from studies, experiments to higher levels of gaining knowledge involves a certain percentage of risk all the time. The workers of the medical field cannot take any decision based on their personal or any somewhat vague ideas. 
Principle of the Golden rule
One of the management ethics that needs to be considered in this particular scenario is,
The principle of Golden rule. This particular principle depicts the significance of responsibility towards others. Other people should be considered equal in the decision-making and kept updated of the smallest of pros and cons attached to it. As stated by Goetsch and Davis (2014, p.202 ), the individuals who shall be affected by the particular decision needs to be taken care in aspect of respect, esteem, the issues they can be facing and more.
The principle of utility 
The principle of utility is one the most important falls under ethics. The motive of this principle is involving well being of the people for whom the decision is being taken and the foremost criteria being the safety of their lives. Any medical equipments or techniques utilized on them needs to be well tested and trusted. 
When it comes to medical ground, the risk factor for the doctors, managers, nurses and practitioners increases. According to Wood and Wilberger (2015, p.154), before being a decision maker, in the medical field, a manager needs to have in depth understanding of factors based on medical ground to some extent. A decision that, might bring fortune for the business sector might not result effectively in medical field. Since their jobs evolve around the life saving objective of individuals. In this particular case study, not only the patients but their family and relatives are also largely involved.
There has been scenarios where a death or any suffering of  a patient led to legal affairs. 
The tests are being performed on chimpanzees, as they are the only group of species who are close to the human group in order to get a fruitful result.
As stated by Lau (2015, p.281), the outcome of the experiment are resulting positively, but as declared by the 
Australian health authority, it would take ten years for the new research to be released and be implemented on humans. 
Since it is about human life, all aspects from political to social to ethical concerns are involved. A minor flaw or any glitch in the decision-making can bring about huge turmoil that can affect the professional conditions of the management authority as well as the reputation of the organization, Changingminds.org. (2017). 
Additionally Non maleficence is another part of the principles of decision making. In this principle, the objective is to promote productive techniques and methods to spread awareness among the management authority. As opined by Bühr and Seitz (2015, p.28), the decisions taken by the management authority, is always important. Essential factors of patient’s life are interdependent on their decision. Thus apart from the medical analysis, confirmation of safety and release, a motive to work faithfully and loyally is encouraged in order to avoid harming other lives. The decision making needs to be tactful in all aspects.
Principle of respecting Autonomy
As the name suggests, respecting the autonomy depicts, prevention of harm caused to any individual. From general physicians to psychologists to oncologists highly believes in this theory and imply it. 
As stated by Van Der Merwe and Puth (2014, p.138), the doctors or any medically authorized person does not usually possess the right to create such situation for a patient. A patient is not likely to take his own decision about his health of even for his relatives or families, as he does not bear the appropriate idea or knowledge of the medical grounds than that of the ideology of the doctors or surgeons.
These situations are likely to be risky for both the parties. This principle encourages the doctor patient relation to be healthy. Sometimes, the doctors impose the right to the patient’s family or the patient himself to take his own decision regarding the benefit of his health, Anon, (2017). Though the factors are risk are present in both the cases.
The principle of professionalism and principle of transparency
The principle of professionalism is another significant regulation that needs to be notifies in the process. It is natural to over think on the pros and cons, coming up with proper reasoning and consequences of the decision. According to Kumar (2017, p.1), the decision making does not solely depend on one particular individual. Moreover, decision-making on medical terms and conditions by risking so many factors can be stressful at times and needs immense experience and wisdom.
The principle of professionalism is not only used in medical field but also business, entertainment and other industries. It involves putting up the ethics and moral in the hierarchy as well as maintaining a formal and professional approach in the decisions being made. As per Lau (2015, p.281), the rules and regulations of this field involves, certain criteria, such as any personal opinions or concerns are not to be shared in the process of decision making, or any unethical occurring with any patient are not be entertained. 
This particular principle helps a decision maker maintain a healthy but formal relation and criteria with both clients and the firm. This principle also sets certain boundaries
A controversial overview of the hand over of the medical invention to west Africa
The alpha pharmacy being a well-reputed organization and a number of people are related to it. Thus, the decision of handing over the West Africa will involve plenty of detailed concerns and glitches to it. 
Taking up a huge decision like releasing a medical invention out to the world revolves around certain unpredicted and uninvited challenges. As stated by Loy (2016, p.114), from a human tender ground, the invention of the remedy to the virus can help and save the life of a number of people in Africa. Since the virus or the disease is spreading on a large scale all over the country, the need of such remedy is definitely an urgent requirement. 
On the other hand, the doing of the same can also harm plenty of people in Africa. As the decision taken by the Australian health authority, that it shall need ten years to be released for human treatment, depicts concerns and focus on other aspects as well. As opined by Avota et al. (2015, p.778), the reason being, the health of humans differ from one another. A person benefited from the same medicine does not assure safety for another. In medical terms, the human body works in different manners, including specific allergic reactions and more. 
Being a manager or a decision maker, an individual needs to keep in mind these particular factors and imply his knowledge on decision. 
Therefore, even if the medicine is distributed for the cure of the Africans, there is no guarantee or assurance that the invention shall be of help to every individual. As per Gallardo-Gallardo and Thunnissen (2016, p.31), a determining analisation and diagnosis needs to be performed  before making the decision and that will demand time or shall be time consuming. 
The medical effects on human beings can change over the time and the affects or influences of the drug in order to cure the virus cannot be judged rightly or understood in a short period of time. They vary diversely and a plenty of opinions in required in the decision making process.
Theories of decision-making
There are several theories attached to the decision making process but some of the most important theories are, motivation to thinking method, the process of thinking and analisation and finally decision making. According to Tracy (2015, p.322), the theory as a whole, refers to taking the decision by following the criteria and methods mentioned in the theories. Some of the most important criteria can be, filtering the choices tactfully and carefully that shall make the final decision. The criteria of organization should be kept in mind and assured that the need of the external body that is the patient, their family and public is also fulfilled. 
According to Gallardo-Gallardo and Thunnissen (2016, p.31), any sense of partiality or heart over mind is not encouraged in the theories of decision-making. If a situation arises, that any eminent decision shall cause harm to a life, then it will not be considered legal and eventually discarded.
One of the most useful theories or concept models adapted by a number of established organizations like alpha pharma, today, is the 8 steps decision-making guide. This guide consist of specific steps that helps the decision to be prompt and effective  It is a guide designed to reduce the confusion, challenges and highlight the purpose and consequence in a methodical way.
Some of the segments of this particular theory involves, detection of issue, updating the exact occurrence to public and a constructive analisation of the finding.
Role played by the management in decision
The management team is responsible for the complete working structure of the organization. In the opinion of Griffin (2013, p.112), the approval for the vaccine cures are put at hold for a valid and sensible reason. As effective decision makers of the huge organization, it is necessary for them to imply high level of communication among the employees. In order to reach every part and maintain a stable mechanism, the management team can adapt different methods such as, strategic tools and techniques. Solving of problems in a smooth manner, time and stress management in workspace, creating collaboration among employees are considered to be the key roles of the management team. Since management team is the core of the organization, a slight negligence in decision-making can be of great disputes.
Improvising the right policies and regulations in the organization according to the past records at frequent terms can help keeping the progress of the organization afresh as well as updated.
Henceforth, the decisions made by the management authority needs to rational by notifying all the demanding conditions of the situation. 
In order to do so, the help of advanced technology and medical guides is the best choice. Today, there are a number of decision-making guides available in the market, such as, the schema theory, the theory of prospect, the ethical and cultural model for decision making, Mylan.com.au. (2017). 
The role of management is a huge factor for the growth and betterment of any organization. It requires plenty of hard work, active behavior, and critical thinking and appropropriate management skills.  
However, in this particular case study, the decision making process needed critical analysis of the whole scenario. The fact being that the vaccine cures have been working on the animals, it was of least surety that the same shall work on the human group of mass. As explained earlier in the case, with examples and theories that the process of decision-making holds smaller details that needs to to kept in mind before moving forward. In some cases, the decision making of the management might not be appropriate and even result in failure at times. In consideration of the particular fact, a decision also needs to be taken in a short period of time, aiming to meet the targets as much as possible, simultaneously.
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