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 ETHICS ASSIGNMENT

Executive summary
The report briefs about the use of chatbots for the notion of personal relationships and privacy. It discusses the use of chat robots for the collection of data through customer interactions and also highlights the advantages and drawbacks of the data collected. The organizations are trying hard to come up with applications that can help in an easier mode of operations while neglecting the privacy of the data. The issues that are taking place due to the misuse of the data are driving the trust of the users away from the organizations which tend to affect the businesses. Thus, if the organizations follow the theories of Utilitarianism, Character-based, Deontology, and Social Contract and ACS code of ethics then they might mitigate the issues.
 
1. Introduction 
A chat robot is a computerized program that imitates human conversation using an artificial intelligence interface. Likewise, implementation of chat robots in various fields affects personal relationships and privacy in various ways. The implementation of chat robots seem to reduce the effort and time but also consist of glitches that prove to be unethical. The report discusses broadly regarding the privacy issues faced by the users for the implementation of chat robots with respect to the four ethical philosophies and one ethics of ACS code. The four theories of ethical philosophies can be named as Utilitarianism, Social Contract, Deontology, and Character-based theory.
 
2. Ethical analysis of companion robots 
 
2.1 Utilitarianism
The theory of Utilitarianism states of a policy or an act that is permissible morally if it makes the greatest good. The theory outlines are:
The meaning is determined at the end
Maximum benefits for maximum people
The requirements of maximum people outweigh the requirements of a few
 
Discussion
The theory of Utilitarianism is a type of ethical philosophy where happiness and benefits of the maximum number of people are considered as the most positive action. In respect to the theory of Utilitarianism, the motive is granted fit and ethically correct if its outcomes drive towards happiness and incorrect if the actions lead to unhappiness (Ienca, et al. 2016).
 
Application
In the modern generation, with the advancement of technology chat robots are being used in the businesses for the ease of operations and also to save time. The chatbots are used in the operation on multiple fields; similarly, it is also used in the purpose of collecting data and applying them accordingly as programmed (Wächter & Lindner, 2018). The applications are undoubtedly time-saving and help to ease the operations but the chatbots are being unethically used and thus leading to the breach of personal data. This causes the breach in privacy and also harms the personal relationships greatly. These negative impacts caused due to privacy issues could have been curbed if the organizations follow ethics as per the theory of Utilitarianism. The organizations need to ensure that the technology of chat robots provide the user with maximum comfort in operations as well as maintain the privacy of their personal data. This is supposed to help in building good personal relationships with the users and thus also prove to help the firm in increasing their businesses (Burton, et al. 2018).
 
2.2 Deontology
The theory of deontology states of a moral system that deals with the obligation or duty in spite of the outcomes and the consequences that the actions may result. The theory outlines can be pondered as:
The treatment of other individuals is based on the wish of the one treating
Duty is performed based on the sake of the duty
 
Discussion
The theory of Deontology is a theory that is based on the obligation and elaborates the action’s type rather than the effects of the particular action. As per the thoughts of the Deontologists, it is believed that the moral decisions are to made depending upon the individual’s duties and the right of others (Cointe, Bonnet & Boissier, 2016).
 
Application
The chat robots use an artificial intelligence interface to perform its operations based on the programmed made for them. The chat robots are used for various purposes but the prime purpose is to chat with the customers. The chatbots while in operation collects lots of personal information of the users (Poulsen & Burmeister, 2019). The information collected is used later on to give customized service to the users which prove to be beneficial. On the other hand, the data collected may get breached if they are not handled safely. This can tend to degrade the relationship between the customer and the organization. There are multiple gaps that get created during the interaction of various groups within the application that might give extra benefits to the users. 
The firms fall in deep trouble in keeping the collected information safe and secure as there are other mediums through which the personal data of the users may get breached. The groups interacting with the users using the same platform might use unethical means that lead to the breach of data. The firms can implement the philosophy as described by the theory of Deontology in mitigating such type of problems. Thus the firms should focus on the prime purpose of keeping the data safe and secure rather than allowing the groups to collect the personal data using the platform (Ienca, et al. 2016).
 
2.3 Social contract
The theory of contractarianism deals with the fact where the moral system evolves through the contractual agreements conducted between the user and the firm. The outlines of the theory mainly focus on the ethics that are based on the social and legal rights of an individual (Darling, 2016). 
 
Discussion
The theory of Contractarianism discusses broadly the social and legal rights of an individual. The theory ponders to the terms and conditions that the individual needs to be abided in order to enjoy the primary facilities. This theory is said to originate long back during the time philosophies arrived and still proves to be fitted well in the moral and political theories of the modern time phase. 
 
Application
The theory primarily focuses over the relationship between the legal and social rights of an individual. As per the theory, it deals with the fact that the ethical systems need to be produced based on the contractual relationships between the users and the organizations. The organizations are using the chat robots to give the applications a touch of the advanced technologies thus trying to ease the operations and save time (Darling, 2016). On the other hand, it was found that the data collected through the platform is misused and unethical means are being followed to serve the purpose of the organizations. This needs to be sorted and eradicated as this proves to harm the trust of the users and thus degrades the relationship of the users with the organizations. This problem can be sorted if the organizations follow ethics as entitled by the government. The organizations need to sign the agreement with the users that details the use of their personal information for the field (Ienca, et al. 2016).
 
2.4 Character based
The character-based theory deals with the virtue ethics which can be described as the philosophy that helps to understand and lead a life of moral character and values. The theory outlines:
The variations of good character
Linkage to the spiritual and cultural influences
Criteria to develop the character for the users
Ignorance towards the responsibility of the duties, consequences and social contracts within the moral systems
 
Discussion
The values are the basics that are prioritized mainly over other aspects in the life of individuals. The values are said to be adopted within an individual from the time they grow up. The virtues deal with the methods of attaining those values and applying them in the phases of life (Obaid, et al. 2018).
 
Application
The organizations are found to use the personal data collected from the users through chatbots in other fields without the consent of the users. This proves to harm the trust of the users which tends to hamper the personal relationships between the organization and the user. It may so happen that the organization thinks of the responsibility of the duties, consequences and social contracts and use the data accordingly. The dilemma faced by the user and the organizations due to the data breach can be solved by following the character-based theory. The organization needs to get abided to the ethics and ignore the consequences, social contracts, and role of their duties during the usage of the data (Liang, et al. 2017).
 
2.5 ACS code of ethics
The theory of ethics based on ACS code outlines:
Competence
Quality
Priority in Public Interest
Professional Development
Quality Enhancement of Life
 
Discussion
The dilemma faced by the implications of chat robots for the notions of personal relationships and privacy is primarily based on data security. The theory entitles the outlines that can prove to help the use of data of the individuals safely and securely (Gerdes, 2015). 
 
Application
It was observed that the users face the breach of their private data that has been provided to the organizations through the use of chat robots. This has led to the degradation of personal relationships between the organizations and the users. This problem can be curbed if the organization follows the code of ethics as scribed by the ACS (Aberkane, 2018). 
 
3. Conclusion 
From the above report, it can be concluded that the technology of a chat robot is supposed to ease the operations, save time and also perform the operations effectively. The organizations are trying new methods to offer the users with greater ease in operations but on the other hand, they are compromising with the safety and security of the users. This, in turn, is hampering the personal relationships of the users with the organizations as the users fear that the data provided are misused. The report discusses the four theories and ACS code of ethics which deal with the ethics that can curb down the problems and bridge the gap ethically between the users and the organizations.
 
 
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