An example of a deductive argument is, “It is sunny in Kenya. If it is sunshine in Kenya, she will not have to carry a raincoat. Therefore, there being no rain, she will not be carrying a raincoat. This one is a valid argument.” However, there are cases of weak deductive arguments. For instance, “Every time I have not prepared for an exam, I have not failed. Therefore, the next time I will not read for my exam I will not fail.”
For the case of an inductive argument, a good example is, “There are a number of defenders booked for more than ten times. Therefore, many defenders have been booked for more than ten times.”
Analysis and explanation
For the case of a deductive argument, the person arguing always intends to make the argument valid. In other words, the arguer is sure that the assumptions in the argument are true and can be trusted. Alternatively, we can say that the in a deductive argument, its premises always intends to provide a strong support for the conclusion indicating that, if the premise is true, there is no way the conclusion will be false. Normally, for those premises that manage to guarantee the conclusion are valid arguments. A valid argument alternatively is a deductive argument. We can understand from the first example that the argument is very valid. If it is sunny, no one needs an umbrella or a raincoat. In the second example of a deductive argument, since one got lucky several for not failing does not imply that the same will happen. The premise does not guarantee for the conclusion that this person will not fail the exam the next time he fails to prepare (Waicukauski 2001)
For the case of an inductive argument, it is an argument in which the person arguing attempts to increase the possibility in the conclusion. In this kind of argument, the arguer tries to make the premise strong so that it can be able to support the conclusion. However, most of the premises in this kind of argument end up failing to support the conclusion thus being false. Another thing about an inductive argument is that there is no standard term for a successful argument. Looking at the above example, it is true that most of the defenders have had more than ten booking but how accurate is that. In addition, we are not that quite sure if the argument is true or false. A mild deductive argument can serve as an inductive argument. From the second deductive example, the premise that the person has a good record of passing the exam without preparing is a strong one. When this premise attempts to support the conclusion, the conclusion is false since this individual can fail the exam this time. Alternatively, let us say there is a first time for everything.
The difference between these two arguments is not on the words used. It originates from the connection the expositor of the argument takes there to be between the premises and the conclusion. If the expositor of the argument holds that the truth of the premises establishes the truth of the conclusion, then that is a deductive argument. If the expositor of the argument does not believe that the truth of the premises definitely establishes the truth of the conclusion, however holds that their truth delivers good reason to consider the conclusion true, then that is an inductive argument.
Waicukauski, R. J., Sandler, P. M., & Epps, J. A. A. (2001). The winning argument. Chicago, Ill: Section of Litigation, American Bar Association.
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