# Sample

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# 1.0 Introduction

All laptop systems share constant underlying laptop design principles. This unit examines these principles and explores the basics of however laptop systems work. Learners can concentrate on the technical detail as well as however the elements operate at AN electronic level.

Learners can explore however varied styles of information will be drawn so hold on among laptop systems. this is often followed by a study of the low-level system elements. It includes the processor, buses, ANd memory incorporating an analysis of however these elements act to control information victimization the fetch-execute cycle. Low-level program directions conjure the fetch-execute cycle and easy assembly code directions area unit investigated beside their interaction with the assorted registers that conjure the Central Process Unit (CPU). Learners can have the chance to develop straightforward programs in an exceedingly low-level language.

## 1.1 Aim:

To modify learners to know the underlying design and elements behind the functioning of laptop systems.

## 1.2 Key Objectives:

1. perceive however information will be drawn among laptop systems
2. perceive the functions of ADP system elements
3. perceive the principles of processor operations.

### 1 perceive however information will be drawn among laptop systems

Numeric Data: conversions between completely different representations of data; representing range|number} variety in several number bases; changing between number bases victimization whole number numbers eg denary to binary, denary to positional notation, binary to hexadecimal; playacting arithmetic operations in several variety bases; representing a fixed-point variety in several number bases; representing floating-point numbers in binary.

Boolean logic: logic gates; truth tables; use of logic gates in integrated circuits; logical operations eg AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR

Coding of information: sign and magnitude; two’s complement; floating-point; binary-coded decimal; writing of character data eg customary Code for info Interchange|ASCII|code|computer code} (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

Types of information: representing bit patterns for various styles of data eg graphics, video, audio, and different data; graphics eg electronic image (resolution, color depth, file calculations), vector (objects, properties); sound (compression, sampling resolution, rate, streaming audio, quality); video (compression, encoding, streaming, quality); analog data; digital data; analog signals; digital signals; conversion eg analog to digital; file formats eg mp3, mp4, wav, avi.

### 2 Understand the functions of computer system components

Key components: Central process Unit (CPU); memory; interfaces; clock; buses, diagrammatical representation; Von Neuman architectures

Central process Unit: management unit; ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit); all-purpose registers; special-purpose registers eg instruction pointer, accumulator; core eg single, multiple; options eg pipelining, data processing, parallel processing; polling; interrupts

Memory: I/O maps; Direct operation (DMA); read-only memory (Read solely Memory); cache; RAM (Random Access Memory) eg static, dynamic, flash

Buses: system bus; address bus; management bus; physical connections to elements eg Central process Unit, memory, input/output (I/O) devices, system buses

Peripherals: sorts eg disk, printer, scanner, network card

3 perceive the principles of processor operations

CPU instruction sets: Reduced Instruction Set laptop (RISC); advanced Instruction Set laptop (CISC); clock rate; performance levels

Cycle

Machine operations: however they're organized and represented; role of the instruction decoder; low-level programs; assembly code directions eg fetch, load, add; higher cognitive process and branching; victimization registers, transferring information between registers, fetch-execute cycle; program storage; information storage; addressing

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