Cigarette smoking is considered as one of the important factors of risk for the cause of lung cancer by damaging the cells. From various reports, it has been estimated that the risk of developing cancer in lungs is more for smokers as compared to non-smokers. . In this assignment, three articles are chosen and reviewed, which are regarding lung cancer and smoking in various Asian countries.
The first article is regarding the characteristics of epidemiology and thee trends involved with the incidences of lung cancer in Iran. Cancer has been known as the important reason for the death of various people in the Asian countries. From the article, it is easily understood that cancer in lungs is considered as a common issue in the world, and many people are dying due to this reason.
The second article is regarding the influences of warnings of health on the basis of beliefs regarding the effects of smoking. In this article, it has been discussed that the health warnings present in the packaging of cigarette can be considered as a cheaper and also best medium of communicating the risks regarding the health effects that are caused due to smoking. 500 adult male smokers along with 500 adult female smokers have been surveyed amongst the countries Bangladesh, China, India and Korea for finding the usefulness of the warnings that are provided over the packaging of the cigarettes.
According to third article related to cohort study, interstitial lung disease (ILD) occurs mainly in Japanese patients along with NSCLC (Non-small cell lung cancer). With the help of chemotherapy, the main target of this cohort study is to eradicate the major risk factors of ILD in Japanese patients. Moreover, in the prospective epidemiologic cohort around 3,166 Japanese patients along with recurrent NSCLC were considered to follow in this study. Adjusting major imbalances of such risk factors between overall chemotherapy processes, it is essential to elevate the purpose of this study in an effective way.
a) The objective of this study related to case control, is to analyse the characteristics and trends and assess the effects of lung cancer in Iran
b) Objective of cross-sectional study is to determine the benefits of health warnings regarding the effects of Cigarette smoking
c) Moreover, key objective of cohort study is to elucidate risk factors for ILD in Japanese patients with NSCLD during treatment with chemotherapy.
In terms of leading the purpose of this critical appraisal essay, more reliable data from Google scholar, science direct and other resources was overviewed. After searching of those sites, three different articles including case control cross sectional and cohort study related to lung cancer are selected in this essay. Articles are as follows-
Case control study- Epidemiology characteristics and trends of lung cancer incidence in Iran
Cohort study- Interstitial Lung Disease in Japanese Patients with
Cross sectional study-Influence of health warnings on beliefs about the health effects of cigarette smoking, in the context of an experimental study in four Asian countries
For the first article, an analytical case control study has been done that was based upon the longitudinal program in Iran. By using this study, it was easy to identify all the cases that are involved regarding the cases of cancer that has been occurring in Iran since the year 2003. The rates of all the incidences of lung cancer were reported on the basis of direct methods and also upon the standard population of World Health Organisation. This research was held on the basis of the data that were existing in the national registry of the cases of cancer and also from the Diseases Management Centre of Ministry of Health in Iran. The study has also been based on the examination of the morphology of common lung cancers. Data that has been used for conducting this study has been gathered from an NCR and also CDC of Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran since the year 2003 (Almasi et al., 2016). Moreover the deputy of all the universities was responsible for the issues of health. Calculation was also done for the crude and the rates peers 100,000 people that have been specific to age.
In order to make the second research related to cross sectional study, useful 500 male, as well as female smokers, were surveyed from the 4 countries. The respondents of Korea completed an online survey of 20 minutes; however, interviews were conducted for the respondents of India as well as China and Bangladesh. For developing the study, the main focus was given upon two groups, which are the recent smokers and the youth. As per the views of Reid et al. (2017), the sample of the adult smokers consisted of only males that reflected the predominant population of male smokers across the mentioned countries. It also reflected the issues that are present with the recruitment of females due to their low rate of smoking as well as the norms present against their smoking. For conducting face-to-face interviews, the respondents were selected from the public areas of the capital city. The research paper has been reviewed and also received the clearance of ethics by the Office of Research Ethics.
In order to find out the article related to cohort study related to lung cancer, it can be observed that nonrandomised cohort research has chosen for conducting multiple perspectives of this research. In this regard, patients with recurring and advanced NSCLC have the capability to receive chemotherapy regimen, which is eligible for the cohort study. In accordance with WHO (World Health Organisation) status along with tumour histology, this study has followed such better clinical practice procedures in this cohort study.
The inclusion and exclusion criteria that are used in the three papers are as follows:
a) The articles chosen are published after the year 2002 and modern case study was also chosen for this assignment.
b) The main focus was given upon various reasons that are causing lung diseases. Smoking and effect of tobacco were considered in order to find their consequences.
c) Location: The chosen location was some countries of Asia which are highly affected by the diseases.