Globalization is often described as a process: steadily progressing over time, pervasively spreading over space, and clearly inevitable in its own development. But globalization is also a revolution, one of the most profound revolutions the world has ever known. Indeed, globalization is the very first genuinely world revolution.
All revolutions interrupt the customs and habits of people. Really, they threaten people's very security, security, and even individuality. The world revolution that's globalization in some measure threatens the security of each people on the globe.
Insecurity, Ideology, and Theology
When individuals have had their security threatened previously, they've responded, even reacted, and such reactions and responses have had good and even grave consequences for the individuals around them. In the nineteenth century, the insecurities produced by the French and the Industrial Revolutions resulted in the ideologies of nationalism and socialism. Ideological responses to deep insecurities were feature of a specific era, however. This was the contemporary era when the Enlightenment and secularization made secular world-views and their ideologies seem the natural and logical way to translate what had been happening in the world around oneself.
There are two paradigms or perspectives from which one may view the role of faith in the globalization process:
(1) that the post-modernist, and
(2) the pre-modernist.
The Modernist Perspective. The modernist perspective will seem the most familiar. It is the view of the majority of intellectuals and academics.
The modernist view has had a particular and peculiar perspective of secularization. Starting with the Enlightenment, modernists have amused the prospect that all secularizations would finally look equally; the different religions would all end up as the same secular and"rational" philosophy. This prospect seemed natural during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when the sole prominent secularization was that of Christianity. But at the moment, it should have been clear that secularized Protestantism was distinct from secularized Catholicism, and that there were differences among the secularized Protestant denominations themselves.
In the simplest variant of the modernist view, Enlightenment and secularization progressively propagate from the educated elite to other individuals as well, from the center of society to the periphery. If any religious communities should stay, they are composed of marginal individuals -- marginal responsibly, efficiently, or ethically. Spiritual communities are almost like societal fossils.
But, of course, these fossils can come into conflict with each other, or together with the educated centre and the secular groups of society. In doing so, they bring bizarre and atavistic conflicts into an otherwise contemporary, secular, and honest world. Leading contemporary examples happen to be Northern Ireland (1960s-1990s), Lebanon (1970s- 1990s), Yugoslavia (1990s), Sri Lanka (1980s-1990s), and Kashmir (1940s-1990s). Many modernists would also add Evangelical Christians from the United States (the 1980s-1990s). But, from the philosophical standpoint, these religious conflicts are peripheral in space, temporary punctually, and marginal in importance: At the end, secularization, that is now massively reinforced by globalization, will eliminate these fossils and battles.
The U.S.. As the Top Electricity in Globalization and Secularization
In the previous two decades, secularization was accelerated and accentuated by globalization. This procedure has been led by the USA. Now"the only superpower,""the high- technology market," and"the international country," the United States has aggressively and consistently supported the revolution of globalization. It's done so by systematically pressing to get rid of any federal obstacles to the free movement of capital, goods, and services. And it has done so as it has the political, economic, and military power to get its own way. The triumphalist United States, that has attained the heights of being the sole superpower at the culmination of the"American Century" and at the conclusion of the modern era, today attempts to lead the world to the globalized market as well as the overburdened era.
The Protestant Rejection of both Hierarchy and Community
The American role in international affairs has been and continues to be, shaped by the Protestant origins of the United States. But the Protestantism which has shaped American foreign policy over two decades hasn't been the original Protestant (especially Reformed) religion, but a set of consecutive, secularizing departures from it onto a down-sliding scale. I will refer to the descending scale because the Protestant declension. We are now at the endpoint of this declension, and the Protestantism that shapes American's global role today is a strange heresy of their first religion. It is not the Protestant Reformation but that which could be called the Protestant Deformation. From the 1990s, with the United States abandoned as the only superpower, this Protestant Deformation is at its best, now worldwide, sway. But because it is such a strange religion, and really is properly regarded as a fundamental and fatal threat by all the other religions, its pervasive sway is generating extreme resistance and international conflict.
The Protestant Spread into Secular Life: The American Creed
In the three centuries after the Reformation, this Protestant rejection of hierarchy and community in respect to salvation spread to their rejection in relation to other domains of existence too. Some Protestant churches, especially Reformed ones, rejected hierarchy and community in respect to church government and local customs. This was especially the case in the brand new United States, where the conjunction of the open frontier and the disestablishment of state churches allowed the flourishing of fresh unstructured and unconstraining denominations.
The Culmination of Secularized Protestantism: Universal Human Rights
The last phase in the Protestant declension has been attained just in the last generation. From the 1970s, American intellectual and political elites began to promote the notion of universal human rights as a basic goal of American foreign policy. The American Creed was replaced by the universal conception of individual rights , more correctly, the components of the American Creed were carried to a logical conclusion and to some universal extent.
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