Non-renewable energy sources such as coal, crude petroleum, and natural gas have been consumed at a brisk pace that's promoting a global energy crisis. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and nitrous oxides in addition to soot which lead to atmospheric pollution. Although fossil fuels will continue to be available for many decades, the total amount of petroleum remaining on the earth and its related cost remains an open issue. The utilization of solar energy such as wind and solar offer renewable and pollution-free sources. A worldwide shift is slowly underway towards the inclusion of renewable energy resources to create mechanical and electrical power. To meet this emerging social requirement, research to alternative energy resources such as solar, wind, and thermodynamic energy generation is penalized in Clemson University.
This research encompasses two renewable energy strategies: a solar-based electrical microgrid, and an atmospheric thermodynamic driven mechanical clock. The concept of a electric microgrid at Clemson University has been researched as it promotes a renewable energy supply to help attain a'net zero' campus. For this case study, solar energy is harvested in the photovoltaic panels under the Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building that is capable of producing 15 kW of DC power at the complete solar insolation score. The electric power produced varies during the day based on the solar irradiation and seasons. Next, compressed air energy storage was evaluated with the generated electric power to operate an electric motor-driven piston compressor. The compressed air is then stored under pressure and supplied to some natural gas-driven Capstone C30 microturbine with an attached electrical power generator. Within this approach, the pressurized atmosphere eases the turbine's rotor-blade operated compression stage leading to indirect energy savings.
In this informative article, a collection of mathematical models have been created for the solar panels, an air compressor, the storage tank, and also the microturbine since they represent the vital microgrid system elements. The simulation and experimental results suggested that 127.75 levels of peak electricity were delivered in 17.5 volts and 7.3 amps from every solar panel. The average DC power generation over a 24-hour time period from 115 panels has been 75 kW that is equivalent to 30 kW of AC power from the inverter that could run a 5.2 kW reciprocating compressor for approximately 5 hours storing 1,108 kg of air in a 1.2 MPa pressure. The operation of this Capstone C30 microturbine was then modeled with a 0.31 kg/s mass flow rate with a 100 air/fuel ratio. A case study indicated that the microturbine, when operated with no compressed air storage, swallowed 11.16 kg of gaseous propane for 30 kW∙hr of energy generation. In contrast, the microturbine worked in conjunction with solar-supplied atmosphere storage could create 50.84 kW∙hr of electrical energy to get an identical amount of fuel consumption. The study indicated an 8.1percent of efficiency improvement in energy generated to the machine which used compressed air energy storage over the traditional strategy.
An atmospheric driven mechanical Atmos clock manufactured by Jaeger LeCoultre was researched due to its capacity to harvest energy based on climatic temperatures and/or pressure changes to power the clock's mechanisms. The clock's bellows is the power unit that drains the on-board mainspring. The unwinding of the mainspring provides torque to operate the gear train, the escapement, and the torsional pendulum. A detailed analysis of this Atmos 540 clock dynamics has been performed utilizing a library of based mathematical models that describe the bellows' electricity production, the potential power of the mainspring, gear train, escapement, and torsional pendulum. Experimental data has been collected using multiple sensors synchronized within the LabVIEW environment from National Instruments.
With this thesis, the mathematical models are simulated using Matlab/Simulink and verified using the accumulated experimental results. The linear movement of the bellows was nearly 6 mm which winds the mainspring above a temperature assortment of 290-292K. The second hand rotation was discovered to be 6 degrees/min. The recorded crutch motion indicated a'grip' position for a substantial portion of the period (22 sec) and an'urge' motion for a little section of the period (8 sec) each 30 minutes in opposite directions. The findings suggested a minuscule skate requirement to run the clock. Concerning green energy, the bellows movement is thermo-mechanical energy harvesting.
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