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Unit 45 Wide Area Networking Technology

Unit 45 Wide Area Networking Technology


Scenario Background

I am IT engineer and I am appointed to provide a solution, so that my organization can connect and establish Wide Area Network (WAN) among the four branches of the company located at London, New York, Tokyo & Sydney. The organization required to set up the best innovation to associate all the branches and give information and voice (IP Telephony) system between the 4 branches. It is normal that all the branches must be equipped for speaking with each other with information and voice. WAN incorporates the primary web server and mail server which is put at the base camp (London) and these servers ought to associate with alternate branches. The organization utilizes an open IP address between branches, which is:

The branches have a document server each, with under 100 gadgets and under 50 IP Phones. The branches are geologically exceptionally far off and a legitimate WAN must be set up so that there is an appropriate system correspondence of voice and information setup. The head office at London has the servers and around 120 gadgets, including 60 IP Phones. The organization recommends the accompanying Topology:

Unit 45 Wide Area Networking Technology

The organization has requested that satisfy the accompanying necessities:

Unit 45 Wide Area Networking Technology


Task 1

We will cover the protocols and technologies that are involved in the implementation long distance networks (WAN - Wide Area Network). This will touch on the basis for long-haul networks, types of services provided, and encapsulation Optional Links. We also discuss the point to point links, the switch packets and virtual circuits. A WAN is a data communications network that operates beyond the field of LANs action. One of the fundamental differences compared to LAN lies in the fact that they can not function without an operator of Telecommunications such as Bell or AT & T or some Internet Service providers. A WAN uses data links, such as Digital Networks Integrated Services (ISDN) and Frame Relay or some other latest technology provided by carrier services to access bandwidth across a large area geographical. A WAN connects the different units of a company, or connects different units to units belonging to other companies, external services (Databases, etc.), remote users . This is a set of technologies used to connect LANs together, or remote connecting sites. It can be installed in several countries or worldwide. Ultimately, the WANs operate beyond the geographical area of ​​LAN. By this feature, the WAN transport a range of information, such as data, voice, images, etc.

The type of architecture used for WAN includes a computer network which must provide a general connectivity to many of computers in terms of profitability and performance. However, networks do not use a fixed technology, but must evolve to take into account the technology changes on which they are based as well as changes in demands of the applications. We talk about network architecture to identify all principles that help in the design and implementation of networks. The architecture of a network mainly describes the connection equipment, software resources, access methods, protocols and links it uses to transmit data. the point to point connection include, services connectionless services connection-oriented and virtual circuits.

The point to point connection

The point to point connection depends on leased lines to connect two computers spaced from each other in a network. Figure 1 illustrates this type of connection.


Figure 1: Diagram of a point to point connection

Data can be transmitted through the connection in following two ways:

(1) Packet Forwarding TCP-IP: data transmitted packet by packet;

(2) Transmission sequence data: data are transmitted byte by byte.

In the latter case, the line is always dedicated to the client. Those with the limited means, however, may have recourse to the discounted connections, such as switching circuits; the point to point connection is quite expensive.

Switching, whatever kind it is, involves moving data to through a series of intermediate steps, or segments, rather than by direct displacement a starting point to a finishing point. Trains, for example, can change lanes, instead of always driving on the same, and still achieve the intended destination. The switching in networks works much the same way: instead of depending on a permanent connection between the source and the destination, it relies on a series of temporary connections that relay messages from station to station. It serves to same purpose as the direct connection, but with more efficient use of resources transmission.

WANs (and local networks like Ethernet and Token Ring (token ring) depend first on the packet, but they also make use of the  switching circuit, message switching, and more recently,  high speed packet Switching technology, known as the cell relay naming (Cell relay).

Circuit Switching

Circuit switching corresponds to the creation of a physical connection between the sender and recipient, preserved as both parties must communicate. For it to happen, the connection must be installed before a course communication can occur. Once in place, however, sender and recipient are sure to have all the bandwidth allocated to them for the duration of their connection.

Although the sender and recipient have to respect the same transfer speed data, circuit switching allows a constant bit rate (and fast). Its main drawback is that of any unused bandwidth. Since the connection is limited to two communicating parties, unused bandwidth can be "borrowed" by any other transmission. The most common form of circuit switching occurs in the most familiar of networks, the telephone system. It is also involved in some networks. The lines ISDN available today, called narrowband ISDN, and the type of line called T1 switched T1 are two examples of telecommunication technologies circuit switching.

Diagram illustrating the circuit switching

Figure 2: Diagram illustrating the circuit switching


While ADSL is still not deployed on the entire territory, it represents currently the best quality / price ratio to access broadband Internet. This is true both for individuals and for businesses. Indeed, because of its speed, pricing and permanence of the connection, ADSL positioned as the ideal technology for connecting local networks of Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to the Internet, or to individuals. After an exhaustive presentation of ADSL and some derivatives, we shall see detailed operation of this technology as well as coding techniques used and unbundling various modes. Finally, we conclude with a comparative study with the advantages and disadvantages ADSL, various offers of Internet Service Providers, and developments future of ADSL.

ADSL technology Was Developed in the US laboratory BellCore in 1987. Operators are interested in this technology due to the massive deployment of fiber optic cables. The deregulation in the United States ended the monopolies in local telephony, opening the competition for the entry of cable operators , long distance carriers and ISPs.




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