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Tourism In Sydney

Tourism In Sydney


Sustainable tourism is a sector that involves minimizing the negative influence of existing companies on surrounding and local culture by supporting in several manners such as; generating future employment opportunities for local individuals, preventing natural resources for next-generation henceforth. However, tourism plays a significant role in Australian economic growth by providing plenty of job opportunities, raising the living standard, maximize the level of GDP, support government in improving the societal groups and conduct many other activities that promote national development. As a result, governing bodies are encouraging the overall tourism industry to come up with creative activities that will favour sustainability across the marketplace in order to preserve the present as well as the future of Australia (Cheng and et. Al., (2019). Therefore, the main objective of this project is to reflect an overview of data that is collected upon sustainable tourism development in Sydney. Mainly, the overall project is discussing the elements associated with activities which shows that the tourism industry of Sydney is involved in sustainability for future growth. Along with this, the findings of a selected topic with further recommendations are also going to outline in the project for understanding sustainable tourism development in an extended way.

Literature Review

Annotation 1

 According to the first annotation, it has been understood that rural tourism is considered a genuinely advantageous path through which the overall nation gets encouraged towards sustainability, and somehow community automatically gets enforced to participate in the travel sector. However, it has been identified in Malaysia that rural tourism is giving a major contribution to the attainment of government broad objective by increasing plenty of job opportunities and successfully eradicating poverty from those social groups which were involved. Apart from this, this can also have considered a method of generating revenue for distinct national communities. At the same time, rural tourism also performing as a probable solution of negative influence which might emerge due to mass tourism in developing nations. Moreover, it’s a kind of best strategy which helps the social group in attaining better living situations due to which foremost thought for the community is to design a project which highlights a sustainable growth and encourage the relationship between a local society with tourist. Therefore, the author believes that basic characteristics for developing the product related to tourism as such are to include management of a hotel, tourism, food & beverages, and various other complementary services simultaneously (Amir and et. Al., 2015). In fact, it is essential for the industry to not forget other additional subsystems to like; infrastructure, health, education, and surrounding. Along with this, it is determined that communal based tourism is prevented and strengthened by several global organizations such as; World Tourism Organization. Their main objective is to attain a topmost quality tourist experience, maintenance of natural or cultural assets, enhancement of societal and economic as well as communal empowerment or possession (Choi & Turk, (2011).

On the other hand, the concept of resilience is used by distinct academic disciplines with various definitions but all of them are focussing on potentiality to comprehend and adjust to reformation, stress, or shock. It means that term resilience has considered differently whereas its extended meaning is utilized by practitioners or other disciplines (Wearing, Wearing & McDonald, (2010). As per the context of the human community level, resilience shows the capability of a place or location which incorporates its member’s potentiality and support systems for establishing positive functional connectivity in the availability of various disturbances. For example; solving new problems, recover from harsh conditions with reinforced and more inventive abilities. In fact, the thought of community resilience has become tremendously salient in an existing era with evidence of increasing international temperatures and thrilling weather event which is really unpredictable. On the other hand, community resilience is not linked with disaster in Malaysia because the possibilities of severe disasters are very low in this nation. Therefore, this article of sustainable tourism is entirely revolving around rural tourism and shows how the community has played a significant role in promoting tourism for future generations too (Dwyer, (2018).


Annotation 2        

 In this article, the author states that tourism is considered as economic production system by having an objective of increasing the industry’s contribution in terms of GDP, foreign exchange remunerations, and employment at an international, national and regional level. This production system consists of several input variables that incorporate natural or cultural fascinations, the infrastructure of tourism, activities, distance from markets, safety, the expense of labor and plant as well as pricing schemes identify whole attraction and competitiveness of a specific destination. Therefore, the author mentioned that attractiveness of various destination influence the factors related to tourist such as; their timing of visitation, levels of demand, enthusiasm to pay, and anticipated length of stay. This shows that the maximum economic growth of a nation is contributed by the tourism industry due to which this sector has followed several strategies for maximizing its influence upon the national or international economy (Gössling and et. Al., 2016). From which, most common strategy and motive of gigantic destinations are to maximize the number of tourists by concentrating on developing global tourist entrances. Mainly, evidence of growth in arrival number is shown in the policy documents of international and supranational incorporates fundamentally all those are issued by UN World Tourism Organization, World Economic Forum, and the World Travel and Tourism Council (Edwards & Griffin, (2013).

           The foremost attention of this literature is on an average length of stay because this factor is positively connected with the income level of tourism. Although, inter-connectivity of the length of stay and spending (outflow) are very much complex as well as dependent upon several socio-demographic variables like; nationality, age, profession, accommodation likings, and season. Mainly, consensus says that length of stay is co-linked with the expenses of tourism due to which it is assumed that average spending per day appears to fall over long periods of stay. It means that, if a visitor is staying in the same hotel room for a longer period then it automatically has a positive influence on the economy with minimizing operating expenses. In the existing era, concerns increased for tourism because ALS is diminishing due to the unfavourable outcome of destination management. On the other hand, the article also mentioned that season is directly linked with the length of stay and arrivals numbers, and seasonality is referred to as a “temporary imbalance in the working of tourism”. This aspect is studied mainly for estimating the demand because seasonality shows the cause of natural change which influence the arrival of tourist in positive as well as negative too. Apart from this seasonality in tourism is also seen as institutional customs such as; holidays of school, the influence of calendar, sociological and economic elements. Therefore, this article has shown the other picture of tourism sustainability that is; length of stay through which the income level of industry fluctuates up and down (Firth, (2011).

Annotation 3           

As per this article, the author believes that the consultation of stakeholder is highly indispensable in the growth of sustainable tourism due to which several groups related to stakeholders has incurred. Therefore, these groups are named as; locals, operators, members of the community, and those who are working in a regulatory position. Moreover, the literature of this article is classified into various groups from which one bunch is showing that individual stakeholders consider attitudes that are certain to their troops (Hardy and Pearson, 2018). Whereas another section states that people who are stakeholders are not always aligned with their team. At the same time, it has been understood that multiple authorities are present which were involved in the planning and growth of the market. For example; Tourism Development Council, convention and visitor bureaus (CVBs), chambers of commerce, parks, and department of natural resources. However, these stakeholders are working together for providing a higher level of advantage to their country or region by having its mission and approaches for entire industry success (Gibson, Kaplanidou & Kang, (2012). Hence, this investigation has organized in a highly politicized location of Australia that is; Tarkine, Tasmania in order to understand the perspectives of Sydney stakeholders. Along with this, it is also understood that the challenges of tourism can be reduced by understanding their viewpoints because few are the same in some cases whereas few are different from their team. Ultimately, the Q method was conducted for determining the attitude of stakeholders and it is identified that attitudes, members as well as regulators of various social groups are not homogenous in nature. It means the sustainability of tourism can only promote if the stakeholder’s attitudes are simultaneously assessed, and this helps in maintaining a proper balance. Hence, the author states that the Q framework in the article acted as a major catalytic element for genuinely connecting the participants for identifying the outcomes. Consequently, a comparison is accomplished with the stakeholders of the politicized region of Australia in order to understand their role in the success of sustainable tourism (Kilipiris & Zardava, (2012).  

Annotation 4

Sustainable tourism has seen as a prevailing paradigm for visitor management in protected regions such as; arena of parks and external recreation has become the leader in describing and applying the concept of sustainability with the use of approaches like; Limits of Acceptable Change. The author has stated that in the current scenario the European Landscape Convention has acquired the attention in context with a broader framework. Mainly, the paradigm of sustainability has emerged from almost 1987 in the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. However, this concept signifies the growth which will meet the existing social, surrounding, and economic requirement without compromising the potentiality for future generations to fulfil a similar need. Therefore, sustainable tourism has denoted as tourism which is handled as per the principles of sustainable growth which means that there must be a balance between the consumption, transformation, and creation of resources related to tourism (Liburd & Edwards, (2010). This is concisely reflecting the context of a protected region which is considered as a significant element of sustainable tourism development strategies. Mainly, the connection between preserved regions and sustainable tourism must be tracked into shared roots. For instance; a movement of American national parks at the beginning of the 20th century was seen as significant aspects in this existing growing nature tourism sector. As per the law of Swedish, national parks are always an ongoing region of national interest that can only be designed on public land is related to national legislation and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Therefore, various of the parks in Sweden have fallen under the category of IUCN whereas many amongst them are included in the EU “Natura 2000” network. Additionally, the article mentioned that Sweden is hosting almost five UNESCO Biosphere Reserves and all of them are established after 2005 (Richins & Hull, (2016).

 By analysing the article, it has been understood that Australia is facing several challenges in managing sustainable tourism in Sydney which influences their development plan of industry. Due to this, they are concentrating on the improvement of socioeconomic advantages by reducing the negative influence of surrounding such as; several institutions are there who are working to protect national parks like; Sweden has taken several initiatives towards environmental development (Laven, Wall-Reinius and Fredman, 2015).

Annotation 5

As per the article, 1984 is a year from which there is an ultimate reformation of local-central connectivity in New Zealand and the most significant result of this re-designing is a radical shift in the roles as well as the obligation of local governing bodies within their constituencies. This reformation has been noticed to a larger extent by the modification in the landscape of public policy. In this change, the historical pattern of social democratic in Keynesian Welfarism was replaced in almost 1984 by policy approach affected by the ideologies of economic neoliberalism. Simply, Keynesian Welfarism is a kind of political-economic philosophy that acts as a supporter for governing bodies in monetary and financial programs to moderate the failures of the market by encouraging the business activities as well as maximize the employment opportunities (Shone, Simmons and Dalziel, 2016). Therefore, neoliberalism is an initial example of an approach for political-economic practices estimating on the advancement of human development by liberalizing the person entrepreneurial skills (Scott, (2011). Currently, the modern style of neoliberalism has re-shaped in which governing bodies are reconnecting with social groups by refocussing on the basic unit of economic and community growth at local as well as regional levels. Thus, in these new situations, the local government has founding themselves getting involved in a distinct range of activities that have extended the traditional provisions. As a result, the maximization of flexibility attendant due to the presence of neoliberalism has increased the challenge for destination governance due to which involvement of local government automatically maximized in tourism development. Interestingly, Sydney advisory bodies are also taking part in the promotion of sustainable growth by using the concept of neoliberalism as several previous laws have reformed for supporting free trade markets which is somehow beneficial for the success of the overall industry (Sinha, (2012).


Throughout the assessment, it has been analysed that the tourism industry is moving rapidly towards sustainability programs by understanding the concepts in more depth manner. In fact, several changes have incurred at international marketplace just to promote sustainable tourism such as; the arrival of term neoliberalism, the involvement of local government in growth, encouraging the rural community to take part in the growth, understanding stakeholder’s roles and creating various tourism institutions for resolving the problem related with the industry. This shows that the overall picture of tourism has changed entirely due to which companies are implementing many changes in their business and nations are also taking initiatives towards development. For example; Australia is moving towards sustainability for creating plenty of employment opportunities and trying to raise the living standards of social groups (Spenceley, (2015). In fact, the government of Sydney or overall Australians are moving towards the development of natural destinations and getting involved in sustainable programs such as; reducing the quantity of using plastic, preserving natural parks, and other tourist places. Moreover, it is identified that Sydney’s accommodation and entertainment industry has become a major contributor to the economic development. Along with this, operations related to energy and water-intensive are major programs towards environmental protection which automatically promote the country tourism in protecting their natural assets for future generations without compromising in present (Theerapappisit, (2012).


From the above assignment, it has been summarized that the tourism industry in Sydney is making numerous efforts to promote sustainability in the overall nation for protecting their existing resources for the future too. Thus, the entire report has shown the steps of the overall globe towards sustainability with the help of several articles such as; Malaysia is preferring rural tourism, Swedish is using another strategy, neoliberalism has gained other attention in the marketplace due to which Australia is also conducting several programs for environment protection. Along with this, trying to maintain a balance between various factors such as; social, environmental, and economic in order to reduce the probabilities of future loss. At the same time, various agencies and institutions are also designed for supporting a tourism industry to come up suitable ideas such as; recycling process, maintaining cooperation with environmental factors henceforth. 

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