Resources are considered a significant element for the overall world, whether it's natural and artificial because it aids in developing the nation from underdeveloped to a developed country. There are various types of natural resources which facilitate nations with multiple services such as; crude oil, petroleum, fuel and many other energy sources that extract from the mining process. Thus, the main objective of this assignment is to cover the element of three African countries in context with their mining process, conflicts and initiatives taken by the government for developing the energy industry of the nation. This general assignment will outline the necessary aspects of mining procedure and activities which are accomplished by countries to prevent their significant resources. South Sudan, Nigeria and Cameroon are three oil-rich countries are going to cover in this project for explaining essential data about the nations to analyse its resource management strategies, policies and actions. However, a minor glimpse of these countries is outlined in the introduction, which is mentioned below for gaining an outlook before moving forward in-depth analysis.
Figure 1-What are Mineral Resourses
South Sudan has almost 12 million citizens, where Nilotic people are high in range as compared to any other, and demographically this country is seen as the youngest nation across the globe. Geographically, South Sudan is not considering as a part of the Sudan region. From the 14th century, Nilotic people are dominating the country after the collapse of Christian Nubian Kingdoms of Makuria and Alodia . In 1941, Nigeria was known as modern when Protectorates of British Northern and Southern Nigeria were amalgamated, but the country gets independent in 1960 on 1st October whereas accepted republican constitution but still elected to be a part of Commonwealth. Nigeria is the largest in the area as compared to the U.S State of Texas and famous as a top populous country of Africa. Cameroon is classified into northern, central, western and southern demographic domains as well as create four large drainage systems. But the soils of Cameroon are alienated into three different groups, and this nation is hot in every month by having a temperature of 70s and 80s. It means that this country is also having lots of things to know because of exciting facts and figures or information.
1.1 South Sudan
South Sudan is formally considering as “Republic of South Sudan” which is a landlocked nation in East-central Africa and its border from the east is Ethiopia, Sudan by north, the Central African Republic from the west and Uganda & Kenya from the south. This country has acquired independence in 2011 as “Republic of Sudan” and make this nation a current sovereign state with broad recognition. Juba is its capital because it’s the largest city of South Sudan which incorporates enormous swamp area of Sudd shaped by White Nile and locally known as Bahr al Jabal that means “Mountain Sea”. Sudan is a country which was occupied by Egypt under a dynasty of Muhammad Ali and governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until the independence in almost 1956.
in between governing authorities and rebel forces. Although this country is new for the world and for Africa too in centre six nations still South Sudan is rich in oil. At the same time, after many years of civil war, this country is still less developed domain on overall earth which signifies through several factors such as; approximately 15% of citizen had owned a mobile phone with selected runway roads in regions that are bigger than Spain and Portugal unite. After independence, major government tension is oil flowing because of Khartoum disagreements that production will only resume in April . Apart from this, there are few minor armed rebellions, border clanks and deadly cattle disputes but all these conflicts were taken place away from Capital, “Juba”. Moreover, indications of resistance within government SPLM party have incurred in July when Salva Kiir President of ethnic Dinka which is the largest group over the nation but discharged deputy “Riek Machar” who was from second-leading society “Nuer”. Initially, it was not clear but started as a political argument which deteriorated into ethnic violence and then President Kiir has pointed finger on Mr Machar. Instantly, Mr Machar denies the allegations by criticizing M Kiir publicly that he gets failed in handling the corruption and challenging president for SPLM’s leadership. At the same time, Mr Machar had also checked olden times with SPLM and signified the leading breakaway clique in almost 1990s.
Nigeria is legally Federal Republic sovereign country which is situated in West Africa adjoining Niger from the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon from east and Benin in the west. This country is comprising almost 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where Abuja is located as capital. Nigeria is having a diverse range of geography with climatic fluctuating from arid to humid equatorial as well as people of a country are full of varied features. In fact, hundreds of languages are spoken in Nigeria such as; Igbo, Yoruba, Fula, Hausa, Edo, Ibibio.
council Foreign Relations of Africa (Nigeria) claims that “disputes in Nigeria is damn. complicated than “Christian vs. Muslims” which signifies that this country had also encountered high range of conflicting scenarios in distinct fields. Though there are numerous conflicts have taken place but this article of Jack McCaslin, (2019) had paid attention on “killing of Christians in Nigeria” and compare it with deadly Easter Sunday suicide terror campaign of Churches & hotels in Sri Lanka. Research associate Jack claim that this attacks “highlight the threats which remain from distorted terrorism and battle against Christians in religiously classified communities .On the other hand, Haldun Çancı and Opeyemi Adedoyin Odukoya, (1999-2013) mentioned that Africa is mixed with most obstinate disputes in which maximum arguments take place because of religious and ethnic identities. In fact, religious and ethnic chauvinism resultant into violence in regulations over state authority, unequal allotment of assets, issues related to citizenship, the collapse of the state, decline in the economy and ethnoreligious clashes. Nigeria is also considered as tantamount with deep classifications which leads to political issues. Instead of these issues, extent level of corruption and robbing essential resources of the state is another most severe or pandemic obstacle which creates a scene for various kinds of conflicts and trouble which destroy the environment of Nigeria. However, Nigeria is splendidly gifted with natural resources and qualitative human conflict, but corruption is a topmost negative element which influences the growth of the nation .
Concession contract is a term which grants the rights, property from governing authorities, local authority, corporations and other legitimate business. Public services like; supply of water operates as a concession, but private entities are also entered in available service concession with the government to have exclusive authorities for operation, maintaining and carrying investment in public utility. Therefore, conflicts associated with mining resources in Cameroon, Nigeria and South Sudan are available service which influences the overall country or Africa in various ways. As a result, the government of multiple countries entered into concession contracts for developing the nation with new strategies and policies. It has been analyzed that People of Cameroon get surrounded by unusual disturbances because of external issues and protests of several fighters in order to take initiatives against mining as its harming the environment which has shown the positive implication of the undertaken work program and set up process to increase the overall set up process.
2.2 Production sharing contract
Product sharing agreement is mainly utilized in the hydrocarbon sector, which signifies the contract between contractor and governing bodies where contractor abides exploration uncertainties, production as well growth expense in exchange of its stipulated profit raise from efforts. These contracts are mainly signed between government and resource extraction entities concerning the amount of extracted asset from the nation. In Nigeria, under this contract, contractor regulates or carry out all the financial, technical as well as operational expenses linked with mining resources in return of profit.
3 -South Sudan
It's June 2014 when South Sudan was in a mid of violent crises and experienced a high range of instability across the nation in which oil resource was a fundamental element of violence. However, distinct conflicts of countries had fragmented the system of government, destabilized structures of democratic, increase the corruption risks and generating severely unstable investment surrounding. Legal norms of South Sudan were enacted for controlling corruption level and make sure that all the deals of industry must benefit the nation in long-term but not yet worked. As a result, the government of South Sudan felt the requirement of issuing a moratorium on every new oil industry agreements and called a standstill on every contract until and unless peace of a nation gets restored . Thus, this concession deal was signed by a country during a crisis and when an honest approach is absent. Mittal contract in post-dispute Liberia is a significant instance of extractive sector agreements which get approved or signed without healthy government theories.
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