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Programming

Just like a human brain, computer also needs specific “Set of Insctructions” to perform a specific task. On giving a set of specific instructions or what it is called as “input” in technical terms, it provides us the specific “output” after processing.

Programming is the method of writing programs using computer programming language by which user can get a specific output on giving a specific set of input.

Programming Language

Just like the language English, Programming language is the language of computer by which we communicate with it for expressing algorithms.  Some of the programming languages used widely in market are: Java, C, C++, Python, Ruby etc.

Components of Programming Language:

There are mainly 2 components of programming language:

1. Syntax

2. Semantics

Syntax:

Like the alphabets, Syntax is the combination of Symbols and the rules to use them. Every programing language have different syntax. For example synax of writing a C++ program is as follows:

#include 

using namespace std;

// the execution of program begins at main()

int main()

{

    // prints  Welcome to the World of Programming

    cout<<"Welcome to the World of Programming";

    return 0;

}

Semantics

Semantics is the evaluation of programming language to find its meaning. For instance:

if(var1>var2){

print “var1 is greater”

else

print “var2 is greater”

}

History of Computer Programming

The first computer programming language that came into existence was in 1883, this was the algorithm for anaytical engine created by a women named Ads Lovelace, who use to work with Charles Babbage(who is known as the father of computer). 

Ads Lovelace is the world’s first computer programmer. She was the first person to program a computer with algorithm which earlier existed only manually i.e on paper. She used numbers to write alogrithm for babbage’s analytical engine to compute Bernoulli numbers and hence credited as the first person to write a program ever.

Evolution of Computer Programming

1883: Algorithm for Analytical Engine

Created by Ads Lovelace, for computing Bernoulli number for Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine.

1949: Assembly Language

Low level programming language  that used symbols to simplify machine language.

1952: AUTOCODE

One of the first ever compiled programming language was autocode, it was developed by Alick Glennie for the Mark 1 computer at the University of Manchester in the U.K.

1957: FORTRAN

Fortran stands for “Formula Translation”, it was created by John Backus for performing complex mathematical and scientific work.

1958: ALGOL

Algol stands for Algorithmic Language, it served as a basis for the development of some of the major languages used such as C++ and Pascal.

1959: COBOL

COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Language.      It was created keeping in mind that a language should run on all types of computer regardless of their hardware structure. It is excessively used in ATM, Credit Card machines etc.

1959: LISP

LISP stands for LISt Processing language, developed by John McCarthy for artificial intelligence work.

1964: BASIC

BASIC stands for Beginner’s All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. It was created by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz at Dartmouth College. This was the first Microsoft product.

1970: Pascal

Used as Apple’s first ever language for software developement, Pascal was created in honor of Blaise Pascal by Niklaus Wirth.

1972: SmallTalk

It was the first programming language that allows programmers to change code on the fly. It was developed by Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg, and Dan Ingalls at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. The language has a strong base and still used in some of the mordern programming languages such as Python, Ruby etc.

1972 : C

C was the first ever high-level programming language created by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs. It was considered as the first high-level language because it contained more of human language and less of that machine code. C is still a popular discovery and being used by many companies worldwide.

Types of Programming Language:

At present there are various different types of programming language available, but very few of them are used to develop real-time solutions. The programming languages can be broadly classified into following catageories:

1. Procedure-Oriented/Procedural Programming Language

Procedural language is usually sequential, i.e. we write a sequence of instruction for computer which then lead to a specific result. Procedural languages were used earlier in the history of programming because it contains huge lines of code which is mostly un-readable and un-maintainable. On the top of that heavy loops, multiple variables are used which leads to resource restriction.

Some of the widely used Procedural Programming languages are BASIC, C, FORTRAN etc.

2. Function-Oriented/Functional Programming Language

In order to reduce the lines of code in the program, the next attempt made was Function-Oriented Programming Language. In function oriented programming language, the repetetive lines of codes that were performing a similar task were seperated and written as a function, which when given an input, gives output after processing and the only task now to replace them was to call these functions whenever required throughout the program. An exapmle to Functional programming is Haskell.

3. Object-Oriented Programming Language

After getting rid of the lines of code, the challenge was to secure the data. In procedural languages, the data use to float around the system which made the programming highly insecure and less reliable when implementing in real world scenarios. With this aim, object-oriented programming language came into existence.

In object-oriented programming language, the real world components  are viewed as an object that can have properties and can perform different task. Every real world scenario can be thought of an object. For instance, a house, which have properties like doors, windows etc. The properties of an object are accessible only to that object until you permit other classes to use them, this way the data is secure and it becomes easy to implement real scenarios in computing world. Some of the widely used Object Oriented Programming languages are Java, C++, C# etc.

4.  Scripting Programming Language

Scripting Programming languages are designed to communicate with other programming languages, some of the scripting languages are JavaScript, VBSript etc. For this reason, some of the experts do not consider Scripting language as the part of Programming language.

One of the major difference in Scripting and programming languages is that a programming language is compiled before it is executed but the scripting language is executed directly and may not show any output if something goes wrong. Scripting languages are mostly used by WWW(World Wide Web) to create various functionalities in Web Pages.

5. Logical Programming Languag

Logical Programming is rules about a problem statement and are written within a system as facts. For instance if expression1 is true expression10, expression11 and expression12 is also true. Some of the examples of Logical Programming are: Prolog, ASP, ALF etc.

Advantages of Using Programming:

Some of the advantages of using Programming are as follows:

1. Reduction of manual and repetetive task

By writing programs, we can simply reduce the efforts of everytime going through the same tedious process and just give input to computer to which it tells us the output.

2. 24*7 Usage

Unlike human, a computer can perform its work tirelessly 24*7 with the same efficiency. Thus, having a computer means human brains can be used for other tasks rathar than repetetive ones.

3. Increased Productivity

As a result of 24*7 working, computers are better in terms of productivity.

4. Less Error

Humans tend to make mistake, while computers always give the same output if same input is provided to it.

5. Measure of Production is easy.

Disadvantages of Programming:

1. Bugs

Bugs sometime are hard to find, if the code written is not systematic. It also makes the system unreadable and unmaintainable.

2. Complexity

Some of the real world complex scenarios may take from a month to several years to complete and implement.

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