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PPMP20015 Research paper assignment help

PPMP20015 Research paper assignment help

PPMP20015 Research paper assignment help

1. Introduction

Topic for this week

1. Introduction

2. Framing research questions and objectives

3. Important terms to know at this stage

4. References for further reading

Objectives for this lecture…

1. How to finalize a good research topic?

2. How to convert the research topic to answerable research questions?

3. How to formulate your research objectives?

What are the steps in undertaking a research project?

i. Selecting a research topic (Week 1)

ii. Framing research questions and objectives (Week 2

) iii. Writing a literature review (Week 3)

iv. Understanding research philosophy(Week 4)

v. Deciding the research methodology (Week 5)

vi. Deciding research strategies and methods for data collection (Week 6)

vii. Collecting and presenting data (Week 7)

viii. Writing a research paper (Week 8)

ix. Preparing a research proposal (Weeks 9 to 12)

x. Collecting and analysing data (not in this unit)

xi. Writing up findings of the research (not in this unit)

xii. Producing a research paper (not in this unit)

Framing research questions & objectives

There are seven steps to framing the research questions and objectives:

1. Determine the scope of the research

2. Brainstorm issues, questions, puzzles

3. Map and structure the issues

4. Define the research problem/gap

5. Justify the need for research about this problem

6. Frame your research question(s)

7. Convert RQ’s into objectives

Step 1: Determine the research scope

It can be a…. ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒

part of a project

comparison between parts of a

project single project

comparison between 2 or more projects

study of an industrial or commercial

sector region

time dimension (e.g. past, present, last 5 years)

phenomenon (e.g. “Virtual teams”)

Choice of scope…

‒must not be too narrow, but sufficiently focussed to adequately cover the topic with project restraints (e.g. completing the project in 12 weeks)

‒must consider whether appropriate resources are available (e.g. number of available researchers)

‒ must be mindful of accessibility to primary data (e.g. difficulty getting data for research about military projects!!!)

Step 2: Brainstorm issues, questions, etc.:

a) Start with a symptom surrounding the topic (found from a focused literature review)

b) Then identify a potential issue,

c) Then identify the research question/s (RQ)

Example topic:

Improving labour productivity in construction projects


Step 3: Map and structure the issues:

View this clip for an example….

Step 4: Define the research problem/gap:

The problem/gap needs to be

a) defined, and

b) a rationale needs to be provided for asserting that a gap exists available to explain the problem, a potential solution for the identified problem does not exist)

Example: Little empirical research exists that measures the effects of xxx on, and none exists which investigates the effects of

(Note: an industry problem is not necessarily a research problem)

Step 5: Justify the need for research about this problem

‒ You must demonstrate that the study makes a significant contribution to the profession.

‒ You should answer the questions:

• why the topic is worth studying,

• how it may impact policy or practice, and

• how it contributes to the general understanding of issues under investigation.


• This study promises to add to the existing knowledge on…

• The study proposes an alternative and novel framework to…

Step 6: Frame your research question/s

a) Research questions…

‒ are common in qualitative studies as a basis for gathering rich & descriptive information. (Merriam, 1997)

‒ are the basis for the appropriate research strategy employed in the study

‒ dictate the methods used, creating a strong nexus between questions asked and the methodology

b) Research questions can be identified by:

- brainstorming

- the existing literature

- replication of previous research

- opposition to existing practices and ideas

- social or business problems

- new methods and theories

- political/economic/social/technological trends

- personal experience

- tutors

c) The chosen research topic helps define research questions…


b) Research questions will guide your…

- formulation of the rationale

- formulation of a research paper

- research objectives

- literature review and update

- decisions about:

• what kind of research strategy & design to employ

• what data to collect and from whom

• how to analyse the data

• writing up your project (i.e. stop you from going off in unnecessary directions)

d) Research questions should be…

- clear (understandable to you and to others)

- be answerable

- be researchable

- be linked to each other

- have potential for making a contribution to knowledge

- be neither too broad nor too narrow

e) Criteria for a good RQ:

‒ a strong research idea should pass the test… “So what?”

‒ they should be able to adequately answer:

• what is the benefit of answering the research question?

• who will it help and how?

f) Remember when creating RQ’s…

‒ If there is some legitimate doubt over the existence of objective facts, be cautious “perceptions of “, ”perceived effectiveness”, etc.)

‒ You should always define terms used in your research question

f) Defining terms used in RQ’s…

- By dictionary (i.e. look up outsourcing)

- By example (i.e. recruiting manpower, labour, tradesmen)

- By operational definition (to describe attributes or characteristics in order to measure it to make it easy for the reader to understand what you want to study)

e.g. for a RQ … What is the impact of outsourcing on the productivity rates?

“In this study, outsourcing means the recruitment of tradesmen to perform the main work and does not include professional staff managing the project”

g) You must avoid questions that are …

- Philosophical (e.g. “What would happen after we die?”)

- Moral/value (e.g. “Should we eliminate the use of paper in projects?”)

- Hypothetical (e.g. “What if all project managers get certified as PMPs?”)

Step 7: Convert RQ’s into objectives

a) Objectives

…‒ are responses to the research questions

‒ establish a relationship between the study’s central question and research questions (identify objectives that contribute to previous research)

b) Objectives must be…

- concise and brief

- interrelated with the research question (the RQ is what you want to find an answer for and the objective describes how you are going to answer it)

- realistic about what can be accomplished in the duration of the project

c) Objectives should not…

- be too vague, ambitious or broad in scope

- just repeat each other in different terms

- just be a list of things related to your research topic

- contradict your methods (i.e. they should not imply standards of measurement or generalisability of findings that the methods cannot sustain)

At the conclusion of a research project, the researcher needs to assess whether or not he or she has met the objectives and if not, why?

d) Examples of converting RQ’s into objectives…

RQ1: What can be done to improve employee ethical practices in construction projects?

Objective 1:To understand the ethics codes of conduct in construction.

Objective 2: To review the impact of unethical behaviours on project performance.

Objective 3: To identify factors that positivelyinfluence employee’s ethics in construction projects

RQ2: What are the approaches for making project team training more effective?

Objective 1:To review the importance of training programs for the project team

Objective 2: To identify the criteria for effective project team training

Objective 3: To investigate industry practices in improving training

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