# Assignment

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# INTRODUCTION:-

When a well drops production below an economic level , the well reaches the end of its period, it must be plugged and abandoned.

“According to UK Oil & Gas Decommissioning Report published in 2015, there are 1,224 wells scheduled for P&A in the UKCS over the next decade representing 30 % of all the wells in the basin. Many of 2,552 wells in the Norwegian basin of the North Sea are also coming to the end of their production life.” (report)

The P&A consists of phases :

1.installation of the primary and secondary well barriers
2.installation of the surface plug and other potential barriers.

## Topics of most importance:-

Regulations for P&A : vary in different parts of the world
Plugging materials : dependent upon well type and complexity.
Plugging operations : Operating company decides
Issues associated to P&A process: Enironment

RESULTS FROM MODEL:-

Figure 2- conceptual illustration of in situ materials used as permanent well barrier (Mortensen, 2016)

Figure 3- Permanent barrier practices (OGUK, 2015)

## BEFORE VS AFTER P&A:-

Figure 4- Offshore production well before and after P&A (Prof. Mahmoud Khalifeh, Dr. Arild Saasen , 2020)

## METHODOLOGY:

A regression model was constructed by using historical data from different decommissioning projects in particular the plugging and abandonment to make estimations on the cost of future projects. The aim is to predict weather the two factors considered will affect the cost of the P&A operation.

## RESULTS & DISCUSSION:

A formula for cost estimation was derived using the model :

TC = 163495.7NW + 269WD – 820495.1

NW= number of wells

WD= well depth (ft.)

The multiple regression model was used to estimate the cost of P&A using the two predicting factors. A number of other factors will influence the cost as previously stated. Therefore this model cannot accurately forecast the total cost involved in the P&A process. This is due to fluctuations in prices daily. (please refer to report for detailed info)

## WELLBORE ISSUES IN P&A:-

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